In Vitro Antibacterial Mechanism of Action of Crude Garlic (Allium sativum) Clove Extract on Selected Probiotic Bifidobacterium Species as Revealed by SEM, TEM, and SDS-PAGE Analysis.
Authors: Booyens J1, Labuschagne MC, Thantsha MS.
Abstract: There has been much research on the effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on numerous pathogens, but very few, if any, studies on its effect on beneficial, probiotic bifidobacteria. We have recently shown that garlic exhibits antibacterial activity against bifidobacteria. The mechanism by which garlic kills bifidobacteria is yet to be elucidated. This study sought to determine the mechanism of action of garlic clove extract on selected Bifidobacterium species using scanning and transmission electron microscopy...
Probiotics Can Generate FoxP3 T-Cell Responses in the Small Intestine and Simultaneously Inducing CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation in the Large Intestine.
Authors: Smelt MJ, de Haan BJ, Bron PA, van Swam I, Meijerink M, Wells JM, Faas MM, de Vos P.
Abstract: Most studies on probiotics aim to restore intestinal homeostasis to reduce immune-pathology in disease. Of equal importance are studies on how probiotics might prevent or delay disease in healthy individuals. However, knowledge on mechanisms of probiotic actions in healthy individuals is scarce. To gain more insight in how different bacterial strains may modulate the healthy intestinal immune system, we investigated the effect of the food derived bacterial strains L. plantarum WCFS1, L. salivarius UCC118, and...
Authors: Bindels LB, Delzenne NM.
Abstract: Muscle wasting is characterized by a loss of muscle mass and strength, and occurs in several pathological conditions such as cancer, chronic heart failure, chronic infection and malnutrition. Muscle wasting can be caused by inflammation and inappropriate nutritional status. Interestingly, gut microbiota has recently been proposed as an environmental factor involved, among others, in energy sparing from the diet, and in the regulation of host immunity and metabolism. This review presents evidence supporting the...
Effects of probiotics in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Authors: Alokail MS, Sabico S, Al-Saleh Y, Al-Daghri NM, Alkharfy KM, Vanhoutte PM, McTernan PG.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Low grade chronic inflammation is observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Endotoxin derived from gut bacteria may act as a potent inflammatory stimulant. Probiotics, which are believed to contain health promoting live microorganisms, may influence circulating endotoxin levels. Ingestion of live probiotic cultures may alter gut microbiota in a beneficial manner to reduce inflammation; no information is available whether or not they do so in patients with T2DM. Therefore, the aim...
Authors: Miquel S, Martín R, Rossi O, BermÃºdez-Humarán L, Chatel J, Sokol H, Thomas M, Wells J, Langella P.
Abstract: Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically active commensal bacterium as a component of the healthy human microbiota. Changes in the abundance of F. prausnitzii have been linked to dysbiosis in several human disorders. Administration of F. prausnitzii strain...
Effect of the combined probiotics with aflatoxin B1-degrading enzyme on aflatoxin detoxification, broiler production performance and hepatic enzyme gene expression.
Authors: Zuo RY, Chang J, Yin QQ, Wang P, Yang YR, Wang X, Wang GQ, Zheng QH.
Abstract: In order to degrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), AFBl-degrading microbes (probiotics) such as Lactobacillus casei, Bacillus subtilis and Pichia anomala, and the AFBl-degrading enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae were selected and combined to make feed additive. Seventy-five 43-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into 5 groups, 15 broilers for each group. The broilers were given with 5 kinds of diets such as the basal diet, 400 μg/kg AFB1 supplement without feed additive, and 200, 400, 800 μg/kg AFB1...
Authors: Butterworth RF.
Abstract: Systemic inflammation is common in liver failure and its acquisition is a predictor of hepatic encephalopathy severity. New studies provide convincing evidence for a role of neuroinflammation (inflammation of the brain per se) in liver failure; this evidence includes activation of microglia, together with increased synthesis in situ of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF,IL-1β and IL-6. Liver-brain signalling mechanisms in liver failure include: direct effects of systemic proinflammatory molecules, recruitment...
Erratum to: Comparative in vitro inhibition of urinary tract pathogens by single- and multi-strain probiotics.
Authors: Chapman CM, Gibson GR, Todd S, Rowland I.
Authors: Stubbe CE, Valero M.
Abstract: Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten-tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com-mon side effect that...
Authors: Eslamparast T1, Eghtesad S2, Hekmatdoost A3, Poustchi H2.
Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronicliver disease worldwide, both in adults and in children. NAFLD represents aspectrum of liver diseases that range from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitisand cirrhosis. However, NAFLD is more prevalent in overweight and obeseindividuals. Evidences thus far suggest that hepatic triglyceride accumulationis not always derived from obesity; gut microbiota can also play a role in thedevelopment of insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, necroinflammation...
Authors: Zhang QZ, Zhu LP, Cheng L.
Authors: Alanazi AS.
Abstract: Autism and related disorders are increasingly prevalent behavioral syndromes of impaired verbal and nonverbal communication and socialization owing to neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The most recent estimate for the prevalence of autistic disorders is about 1% on a global scale. Etiology of autism is multifactorial and multidimensional that makes therapeutic intervention even harder. Heterogeneity of genetic factors, oxidative stress, autoimmune mechanism, and epigenetic mechanisms complicate the nature of...
Authors: Arnold C.
Abstract: Research into the human microbiome has encouraged proliferation of probiotic foods and supplements. Although the health claims seem legit, Carrie Arnold finds not everyone is convinced....
Authors: Bowe WP.
Authors: Wee EW.
Abstract: Patients with dyspepsia may present with associated complaints of abdominal pain, bloating, fullness, acid reflux, and epigastric tenderness on examination. The evaluation of patients with dyspepsia includes taking a comprehensive history and performing a physical examination. Although taking a patient history has its limitations in making an accurate diagnosis, it is useful in guiding the selection of subsequent diagnostic tests. Differential diagnoses of dyspepsia are best addressed using an anatomical approach....
Authors: Mastromarino P, Vitali B, Mosca L.
Abstract: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal syndrome afflicting fertile, premenopausal and pregnant women. BV is associated with important adverse health conditions and infectious complications. Therapy with oral or local recommended antibiotics is often associated with failure and high rates of recurrences. The dominance of lactobacilli in healthy vaginal microbiota and its depletion in BV has given rise to the concept of oral or vaginal use of probiotic Lactobacillus strains for treatment and prevention...
Authors: Maio KA.
Treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children: an overview of systematic reviews of interventions commonly used in developed countries.
Authors: Freedman SB, Ali S, Oleszczuk M, Gouin S, Hartling L.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is an extremely common paediatric condition, which results in significant morbidity in children and is a financial burden to the society.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this overview is to critically evaluate the evidence currently available in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) regarding the efficacy and safety of commonly considered treatment options in children with AGE.METHODS: All Cochrane reviews evaluating the following treatments in children with AGE...
Comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from Actimel and Yakult products reveals marked similarities and points to a common origin.
Authors: Douillard FP, Kant R, Ritari J, Paulin L, Palva A, de Vos WM.
Abstract: The members of the Lactobacillus genus are widely used in the food and feed industry and show a remarkable ecological adaptability. Several Lactobacillus strains have been marketed as probiotics as they possess health-promoting properties for the host. In the present study, we used two complementary next-generation sequencing technologies to deduce the genome sequences of two Lactobacillus casei strains LcA and LcY, which were isolated from the products Actimel and Yakult, commercialized as probiotics. The LcA...
Authors: Lippolis R, Siciliano RA, Mazzeo MF, Abbrescia A, Gnoni A, Sardanelli AM, Papa S.
Abstract: BakgroundThe spore-bearing alkaliphilic Bacillus species constitute a large, heterogeneous group of microorganisms, important for their ability to produce enzymes, antibodies and metabolites of potential medical use. Some Bacillus species are currently being used for manufacturing probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores, exhibiting specific features (colonization, immune-stimulation and antimicrobial activity) that can account for their claimed probiotic properties. In the present work a comparative...
Microencapsulated probiotics using emulsification technique coupled with internal or external gelation process.
Authors: Song H, Yu W, Gao M, Liu X, Ma X.
Abstract: Alginate-chitosan microcapsules containing probiotics (Yeast, Y235) were prepared by emulsification/external gelation and emulsification/internal gelation techniques respectively. The gel beads by external gelation showed asymmetrical structure, but those by internal gelation showed symmetrical structure in morphology. The cell viability was approximately 80% for these two techniques. However, during cell culture process, emulsification/internal gelation microcapsules showed higher cell growth and lower cell...
Authors: Alexandre Y, Le Blay G, Boisramé-Gastrin S, Le Gall F, Héry-Arnaud G, Gouriou S, Vallet S, Le Berre R.
Abstract: Antibiotics, of which Fleming has identified the first representative, penicillin, in 1928, allowed dramatical improvement of the treatment of patients presenting with infectious diseases. However, once an antibiotic is used, resistance may develop more or less rapidly in some bacteria. It is thus necessary to develop therapeutic alternatives, such as the use of probiotics, defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "micro-organisms which, administered live and in adequate amounts, confer a benefit to...
Authors: Verraes C, Van Boxstael S, Van Meervenne E, Van Coillie E, Butaye P, Catry B, de Schaetzen MA, Van Huffel X, Imberechts H, Dierick K, Daube G, Saegerman C, De Block J, Dewulf J, Herman L.
Abstract: Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic pathogens present on food constitute a direct risk to public health. Antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal or pathogenic strains form an indirect risk to public health, as they increase the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up resistance traits. Food can be contaminated with antimicrobial resistant bacteria and/or antimicrobial resistance genes in several ways. A first way is the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria on food selected by the use of antibiotics...
Dietary probiotic supplementation modulated gut microbiota and improved growth of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
Authors: Ramos MA, Weber B, Gonçalves JF, Santos GA, Rema P, Ozório RO.
Abstract: In aquaculture, infectious diseases are the major cause of economic losses. Probiotic supplementation may change the microbiota of the digestive tract and modulate the immune defences and nutritional performance. This study was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of multi-species (A: Bacillus sp., Pediococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp.) and single-species probiotics (B: Pediococcus acidilactici) on growth performance and gut microbiota of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A basal...
Authors: Wang ZH, Gao QY, Fang JY.