Authors: Frontiers in Endocrinology Editorial Office.
Physiological and functional characteristics of Propionibacterium strains of the poultry microbiota and relevance for the development of probiotic products.
Authors: ArgaÃ±araz-Martínez E, Babot JD, Apella MC, Perez Chaia A.
Abstract: The prevention and control of pathogens colonization through probiotics administration in poultry feeding is of increasing interest. The genus Propionibacterium is an attractive candidate for the development of probiotic cultures as they produce short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by carbohydrates fermentation. The presence of strains of this genus in hens of conventional production systems and backyard hens was investigated. Propionibacteria were isolated from the intestine and identified by physiological and biochemical...
Authors: Kumar S, Singhi S, Chakrabarti A, Bansal A, Jayashree M.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES:: To compare the prevalence of candidemia and candiduria before and after the introduction of routine use of probiotics in children who received broad-spectrum antibiotics in a PICU.DESIGN:: Retrospective "before and after" study.SETTING:: A 12-bed PICU of a teaching hospital in India.PATIENTS:: Children 3 months to 12 years old, admitted to the PICU over two 9 months' time periods, who received broad-spectrum antibiotics for more than 48 hours.INTERVENTIONS:: Three hundred forty-four patients enrolled...
Review article: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth - prevalence, clinical features, current and developing diagnostic tests, and treatment.
Authors: Grace E, Shaw C, Whelan K, Andreyev HJ.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The symptoms and signs of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) are often identical to a variety of diseases and can lead to diagnostic confusion.AIMS: To review the diagnostic options for SIBO and present new investigative options for the condition.METHODS: A literature search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for English articles and abstracts. Search terms included free text words and combinations of the following terms 'small intestinal bacterial overgrowth', 'small bowel...
Authors: Chen SL.
Abstract: The managements of functional dyspepsia (FD) are challenges for gastroenterologists in clinical practice. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), the utility of antacids, prokinetics and antidepressants are recommended as the treatment choices for FD by consensus. Unlike in Europe and the United States, H. pylori eradication can lead to a higher proportion of FD patients with symptom relief and a higher symptom response rate to prokinetics in Asia. And the response rates to anti-secretory drugs such...
Authors: Mehal WZ.
Abstract: The development of obesity and NAFLD is known to be determined by host genetics, diet and lack of exercise. In addition, the gut microbiota has been identified to influence the development of both obesity and NAFLD. Evidence for the role of the gut microbiota has been shown by preclinical studies of transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese individuals, with the recipient developing the metabolic features of the donor. Many bidirectional interactions of the gut microbiota, including with food, bile and...
Authors: Bernaola Aponte G, Bada Mancilla CA, Carreazo NY, Rojas Galarza RA.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Persistent diarrhoea (diarrhoea lasting more than 14 days) accounts for one third of all diarrhoea related deaths in developing countries in some studies. Probiotics may help treatment.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate probiotics for treating persistent diarrhoea in children.SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS. We also contacted authors of included trials and organizations working in the field, and checked reference lists....
Authors: Gollwitzer ES, Marsland BJ.
Abstract: Increasingly the development of novel therapeutic strategies is taking into consideration the contribution of the intestinal microbiota to health and disease. Dysbiosis of the microbial communities colonizing the human intestinal tract has been described for a variety of chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and asthma. In particular, reduction of several so-called probiotic species including Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria that are generally considered to be beneficial, as well as an...
Authors: Li D, Li Q, Liu C, Lin M, Li X, Xiao X, Zhu Z, Gong Q, Zhou H.
Abstract: This study aimed at evaluating the short-term efficacy and safety of probiotics as an aid in the treatment of Candida-associated stomatitis in a randomised controlled trial. A total of 65 patients were randomly assigned to receive oral local antifungal agents alone (gargle 2% sodium bicarbonate solution for 30Â s, wait 10Â min and then apply 2% nystatin paste) or these agents plus local probiotics (the mixture of Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) three times...
Long-term treatment with probiotics in primary care patients with irritable bowel syndrome - a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.
Authors: Begtrup LM, de Muckadell OB, Kjeldsen J, Christensen RD, Jarbøl DE.
Abstract: Objective. Meta-analyses have indicated effect of probiotics on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, few long-term trials have been conducted and uncertainty remains as to effectiveness and long-term effect in a primary care setting. We aimed to investigate the effect of probiotics compared with placebo in the management of IBS in primary care during a 6-month treatment period and with a 6-month follow-up. Material and methods. We randomized IBS patients fulfilling Rome III criteria to receive two capsules...
The effects of probiotics on barrier function and mucosal pouch microbiota during maintenance treatment for severe pouchitis in patients with ulcerative colitis.
Authors: Persborn M, Gerritsen J, Wallon C, Carlsson A, Akkermans LM, Söderholm JD.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A total of 10-15% of patients with an ileoanal pouch develop severe pouchitis necessitating long-term use of antibiotics or pouch excision. Probiotics reduce the risk of recurrence of pouchitis, but mechanisms behind these effects are not fully understood.AIM: To examine mucosal barrier function in pouchitis, before and after probiotic supplementation and to assess composition of mucosal pouch microbiota.METHODS: Sixteen patients with severe pouchitis underwent endoscopy with biopsies of the pouch...
Randomised clinical trial: mesalazine and/or probiotics in maintaining remission of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease - a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study.
Authors: Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Elisei W, Picchio M, Forti G, Pianese G, Rodino S, D'Amico T, Sacca N, Portincasa P, Capezzuto E, Lattanzio R, Spadaccini A, Fiorella S, Polimeni F, Polimeni N, Stoppino V, Stoppino G, Giorgetti GM, Aiello F, Danese S.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Placebo-controlled studies in maintaining remission of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) of the colon are lacking.AIM: To assess the effectiveness of mesalazine and/or probiotics in maintaining remission in SUDD.METHODS: A multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. Two hundred and ten patients were randomly enrolled in a double-blind fashion in four groups: Group M (active mesalazine 1.6Â g/day plus Lactobacillus casei subsp. DG placebo), Group L (active...
Authors: Elazab N, Mendy A, Gasana J, Vieira ER, Quizon A, Forno E.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Probiotics may reduce the risk of atopy and asthma in children. However, results from clinical trials have been conflicting, and several of them may have been underpowered. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials to assess the effects of probiotic supplementation on atopic sensitization and asthma/wheeze prevention in children.METHODS:Random-effects models were used to calculate pooled risk estimates. Meta-regression was conducted to examine the effect of...
Clostridium difficile exposure as an insidious source of infection in healthcare settings: an epidemiological model.
Authors: Yakob L, Riley TV, Paterson DL, Clements AC.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Its epidemiology has shifted in recent years from almost exclusively infecting elderly patients in whom the gut microbiota has been disturbed by antimicrobials, to now also infecting individuals of all age groups with no recent antimicrobial use.METHODS: A stochastic mathematical model was constructed to simulate the modern epidemiology of C. difficile in a healthcare setting, and, to compare the efficacies...
The effect of Protexin on prevention of ileocecal infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy calves.
Authors: Badiei A, Moosakhani F, Hamidi A, Sami M.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Protexin (Probiotics International Ltd., South Petherton, UK) in the prevention of ileocecal infection by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in dairy calves in the field situation. Forty Holstein bull calves whose dams were paratuberculosis negative (confirmed by serum ELISA test and fecal nested PCR) were randomly selected in 2 groups. All calves were fed raw milk collected from the bulk tank in a paratuberculosis-infected dairy farm, which...
The effect of increasing the nutrient and amino acid concentration of milk diets on dairy heifer individual feed intake, growth, development, and lactation performance.
Authors: Margerison JK, Robarts AD, Reynolds GW.
Abstract: Increasing early (<3 mo) nutrient feeding levels and growth rate of dairy calves has been found to increase their milk production potential. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of offering milk diets with or without added carbohydrates and amino acids on calf growth, weaning age, and subsequent growth and milk yield of dairy heifers in their first lactation. Friesian calves born at Massey University (n = 57) were selected at random, weighed, and allocated to receive 1 of 3 diets. All calves...
Authors: Fitzpatrick LR.
Abstract: The purpose of this review paper is to update the current and potential future role of probiotics for Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD). Included in this review, is an update on the testing of newer probiotics (e.g., Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086) in animal models of CDAD. There is a focus on the modulation of signal transduction pathways (i.e., transcription factors like cAMP response element-binding, activator protein 1, and nuclear factor kappa B), as well as the inhibition of certain kinases...
Changes in selected parameters related to proteolysis during ageing of dry-cured pork loins inoculated with probiotics.
Authors: Stadnik J, Dolatowski ZJ.
Abstract: The effect of inoculation with a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus casei ŁOCK 0900, on selected parameters related to proteolysis of dry-cured pork loins during ageing was studied. Moisture content decreased significantly (p<0.05) throughout ageing, accompanied by a progressive reduction in water activity. The total nitrogen (TN) content increased during ageing with no effect (p<0.05) of inoculation with L. casei on its level. The greatest increase in non-protein nitrogen (NPN) content during ageing occurred...
Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 Induce Different Age-Related Metabolic Profiles Revealed by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy in Urine and Feces of Mice.
Authors: Brasili E, Mengheri E, Tomassini A, Capuani G, Roselli M, Finamore A, Sciubba F, Marini F, Miccheli A.
Abstract: Age-related dysbioses of intestinal microbiota and decline in the overall metabolic homeostasis are frequently found in the elderly. Probiotic supplementation may represent a way to prevent or reduce the senescence-associated metabolic disorders. The present study evaluated the metabolic impact of Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 supplementation in relation to age by analyzing urine and feces metabolic profiles using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis....
Probiotic VSL#3-induced TGF-β ameliorates food allergy inflammation in a mouse model of peanut sensitization through the induction of regulatory T cells in the gut mucosa.
Authors: Barletta B, Rossi G, Schiavi E, Butteroni C, Corinti S, Boirivant M, Di Felice G.
Abstract: SCOPE: Among food allergies, peanut allergy is frequently associated with severe anaphylactic reactions. In the need for safe and effective therapeutic strategies, probiotics may be considered on the basis of their immunomodulatory properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunological mediators involved in the effects of probiotic VSL#3 oral supplementation on Th2 inflammation and anaphylaxis in a mouse model of peanut allergy.METHODS AND RESULTS: VSL#3 supplementation to peanut-sensitized...
Authors: Assathiany R, Guedj R, Bocquet A, Thiebault G, Salinier C, Girardet JP; l’Association française de pédiatrie ambulatoire.
Abstract: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a very common reason for pediatric consultations. Various expert committees have issued guidelines for its management, based on systematic use of an oral rehydration solution (ORS), early appropriate nutrition (most recent previous diet), and avoiding routine treatment with medication. The aim of the study was to assess the application of these guidelines by pediatricians in outpatient practice for mild to moderate AGE. A secondary objective was to question pediatricians about...
Authors: Niwa T.
Abstract: Introduction: Protein-bound uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate cannot be removed efficiently by hemodialysis. These protein-bound uremic toxins have emerged as important risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Areas covered: Indoxyl sulfate shows toxic effects on a variety of cells such as renal proximal tubular cells, glomerular mesangial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts,...
Authors: Power SE, O'Toole PW, Stanton C, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF.
Abstract: The human intestine is colonised by 1013 to 1014 micro-organisms, the vast majority of which belong to the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Although highly stable over time, the composition and activities of the microbiota may be influenced by a number of factors including age, diet and antibiotic treatment. Although perturbations in the composition or functions of the microbiota are linked to inflammatory and metabolic disorders (e.g. inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome and obesity), it...
Impact of Adding Prophylactic Probiotics to a Bundle of Standard Preventative Measures for Clostridium difficile Infections: Enhanced and Sustained Decrease in the Incidence and Severity of Infection at a Community Hospital.
Authors: Maziade PJ, Andriessen A, Pereira P, Currie B, Goldstein EJ.
Abstract: Background: In 2003, hospitals in Quebec (Canada) experienced an increase of NAP1/027 Clostridium difficile infections following antibiotic administration (CDIAA). At Pierre-Le Gardeur Hospital (PLGH), the incidence increased from 10 to over 25 cases per 1000 patient admissions. Methods: We report a quasi-experimental, prospective cohort study evaluating the effect on CDIAA of a probiotic added to existing C. difficile infection (CDI) standard preventative measures (SPM) in 31832 hospitalized patients receiving...
Dietary probiotic supplementation (Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11) modulates gut microbiota and promotes growth and condition in Senegalese sole larviculture.
Authors: Lobo C, Moreno-Ventas X, Tapia-Paniagua S, Rodríguez C, Moriñigo MA, de La Banda IG.
Abstract: Probiotic supplementation in fish aquaculture has significantly increased in the last decade due to its beneficial effect on fish performance. Probiotic use at early stages of fish development may contribute to better face metamorphosis and weaning stress. In the present work, we studied the influence of Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 supplementation on growth, body composition and gut microbiota in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) during larval and weaning development. S. putrefaciens Pdp11 was incorporated...