Authors: Zhang Y1, Chen J1, Wu J1, Chalson H2, Merigan L2, Mitchell A1.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although liver transplantation has been widely practised, post-operative bacterial infection is still a frequent complication which contributed to an increased risk of fatality. There were studies on preoperative use of probiotics for liver transplant patients and acquired reduction in postoperative sepsis and wound infection, but the relevant clinical experience with pre- and probiotics is still limited.OBJECTIVES: This study is to assess fibre and probiotic use aimed at preventing bacterial sepsis...
Authors: Weng M, Walker WA.
Abstract: The human fetus lives in a germ-free intrauterine environment and enters the outside world containing microorganisms from several sources, resulting in gut colonization. Full-term, vaginally born infants are completely colonized with a diverse array of bacterial families in clusters (Phyla) and species (>1000) by the first year of life. Colonizing bacteria communicating with the gut epithelium and underlying lymphoid tissues ('bacterial-epithelial crosstalk') result in a functional immune phenotype and no...
In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Clostridium difficile.
Authors: Lee JS, Chung MJ, Seo JG.
Abstract: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become a significant threat to public health. Although broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is the primary treatment option for CDI, its use has evident limitations. Probiotics have been proved to be effective in the treatment of CDI and are a promising therapeutic option for CDI. In this study, 4 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR5), Lactococcuslactis (SL3), Bifidobacterium breve (BR3), and Bifidobacterium lactis (BL3) were evaluated...
A Study on the Prevention of Salmonella Infection by Using the Aggregation Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria.
Authors: Kim MS, Yoon YS, Seo JG, Lee HG, Chung MJ, Yum DY.
Abstract: Salmonella is one of the major pathogenic bacteria that cause food poisoning. This study investigated whether heat-killed as well as live Lactobacillus protects host animal against Salmonella infection. Live and heat-killed Lactobacillusacidophilus was administered orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 weeks before the rats were inoculated with Salmonella. Rise in body temperature was moderate in the group that was treated with heat-killed bacteria as compared to the Salmonella control group. The mean amount of...
Clinical and Microbiologic Characteristics of Clostridium difficile Infection Caused by Binary Toxin Producing Strain in Korea.
Authors: Kim J, Seo MR, Kang JO, Choi TY, Pai H.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Binary toxin-producing Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are known to be more severe and to cause higher case fatality rates than those by binary toxin-negative isolates. There has been few data of binary toxin-producing CDI in Korea. Objective of the study is to characterize clinical and microbiological trait of CDI cause by binary-toxin producing isolates in Korea.MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 2008 through January 2010, clinical characteristics, medication history and treatment outcome...
Authors: Jiménez-Pacheco A, Jiménez-Pacheco A.
Authors: Kim HS, Lee HY, Kim MK.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use, investigate the related factors associated with DS use among preschoolers and support the adequate nutrition.METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire survey of mothers of children aged between 1 and 6 years who visited pediatric clinics in 3 Korean cities (Jeonju, Suncheon, Jeongeup) between October and November 2012 at Presbyterian Medical Center. The responses from 929 questionnaires were analyzed.RESULTS: Approximately 45.1% of the preschoolers...
[Effect of probiotics on the dynamics of gastrointestinal symptoms of food allergy to cow's milk protein in infants].
Authors: Ivakhnenko O, Nyankovskyy S.
Abstract: The problem of food allergy to cow's milk protein in children is highly important. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 (1Ñ…109 CFU) and Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 (1Ñ…108 CFU) administration on gastrointestinal symptoms of cow's milk allergy in infants. We conducted an open randomized prospective clinical study. 60 infants aged of 3-12 months with the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis and allergy to cow's milk protein were enrolled. Children were divided into...
Authors: Lau S.
Abstract: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the concept of food allergy prevention, no successful strategy could be identified until now. Although interventional trials using probiotics, prebiotics, hydrolyzed formula and bacterial lysates early in infancy were found to reduce the incidence of atopic dermatitis, no effect on food sensitization and allergy could be shown.RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in a farming environment showed that early contact to livestock, bacteria and moulds may upregulate the immune responses regulated via Toll-like...
Authors: [No authors listed]
Abstract: Around 40-50% of women experience at least one urinary tract infection (UTI) during their lifetime and 20-30% of these have a recurrence within 3-4 months of the initial infection.(1) Recurrent UTI (usually defined as three episodes in the last 12 months or two episodes in the last 6 months) can have a considerable impact on a woman's quality of life. Each episode of acute UTI in young women is typically associated with about 6 days of symptoms, 2.4 days of restricted activities and 0.4 days of bed rest.(1)...
Authors: Aryan Z, Comapalati E, Canonica GW, Rezaei N.
Abstract: Atopic asthma in childhood with the tendency to persist into adult life is an important issue in pediatrics. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only curative treatment option for these children, being directed to the causes of the disease. The Th2 phenotype is a predominant immunological pattern in atopic asthma and SIT leads to apoptosis/anergy of T cells and induces immune-regulatory responses and immune deviation towards Th1. Many factors can affect the safety and efficacy of SIT, such as pattern...
Optimization of bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR against shrimp bacterial pathogens.
Authors: Iyapparaj P, Maruthiah T, Ramasubburayan R, Prakash S, Kumar C, Immanuel G, Palavesam A.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Aquaculture is one amongst the growing and major food producing sectors. Shrimp culture is one of the subsectors of aquaculture that attracts more attention because of the economic interest. However, the shrimp culture systems have been facing severe consequences and economical losses due to disease outbreaks. Risk of disease outbreak can be combated with the application of probiotics. For economically viable production of such probiotic products, the present study provides information on the optimization...
Screening of lactobacillus isolated from pork sausages for potential probiotic use and evaluation of the microbiological safety of fermented products.
Authors: Dias FS, Duarte WF, Santos MR, Ramos EM, Schwan RF.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to select strains of Lactobacillus isolated from pork sausage for use as probiotics. Lactobacillus isolates were evaluated in tests based on probiotic characteristics and microbiological safety. The UFLA SAU 14, 52, and 91 isolates were differentiated by coaggregation with Listeria monocytogenes, production of lactic acid, and survival at pH 2. UFLA SAU 172 and 187 isolates had high levels of coaggregation with Salmonella Typhi and Escherichia coli, tolerance to pancreatic fluid, and...
Fast screening of Bifidobacterium longum sublethal stress conditions in a novel two-stage continuous culture strategy.
Authors: Mozzetti V, Grattepanche F, Berger B, Rezzonico E, Arigoni F, Lacroix C.
Abstract: A central issue in the application of probiotics as food additives is their fastidious production and their sensitivity to many environmental stresses. The importance of inducible cell-protective mechanisms triggered by application of sublethal stresses for survival under stress conditions has been demonstrated. Continuous cultures could be a suitable and more efficient method to test stress factors on one culture instead of several repeated batch cultures. In this study, the application of a two-stage continuous...
Immune signalling responses in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to pathogenic Escherichia coli and lactic acid-producing probiotics.
Authors: Ho NK, Hawley SP, Ossa JC, Mathieu O, Tompkins TA, Johnson-Henry KC, Sherman PM.
Abstract: Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and adherent-invasive Escherichia coli are two groups of enteric bacterial pathogens associated with haemorrhagic colitis and Crohn's Disease, respectively. Bacterial contact with host epithelial cells stimulates an immediate innate immune response designed to combat infection. In this study, immune responses of human epithelial cells to pathogens, either alone or in combination with probiotic bacteria were studied. Industrially prepared Lactobacillus helveticus strain...
Authors: Goldenberg JZ, Ma SS, Saxton JD, Martzen MR, Vandvik PO, Thorlund K, Guyatt GH, Johnston BC.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are widely prescribed; however they can cause disturbances in gastrointestinal flora which may lead to reduced resistance to pathogens such as Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). Probiotics are live organisms thought to balance the gastrointestinal flora.OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of probiotics for preventing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) or C. difficile infection in adults and children.SEARCH METHODS: On February 21,...
In vitro evaluation of the impact of human background microbiota on the response to Bifidobacterium strains and fructo-oligosaccharides.
Authors: Arboleya S, Salazar N, Solís G, Fernández N, Gueimonde M, de Los Reyes-Gavilán CG.
Abstract: The microbial colonisation of the infant gut begins immediately after birth and is essential for the development of the intestine, the immune system and later well-being. Important differences have been reported in the characteristics of such microbiota in different infant population groups. In the present study, we employed an in vitro faecal batch culture model using faeces from different human population groups (adults and full-term breast-fed, full-term formula-fed and preterm infants) to determine the influence...
Authors: Hill C, Sanders ME.
Probiotics, prebiotics and immunomodulation of gut mucosal defences: homeostasis and immunopathology.
Authors: Hardy H, Harris J, Lyon E, Beal J, Foey AD.
Abstract: Probiotics are beneficial microbes that confer a realistic health benefit on the host, which in combination with prebiotics, (indigestible dietary fibre/carbohydrate), also confer a health benefit on the host via products resulting from anaerobic fermentation. There is a growing body of evidence documenting the immune-modulatory ability of probiotic bacteria, it is therefore reasonable to suggest that this is potentiated via a combination of prebiotics and probiotics as a symbiotic mix. The need for probiotic...
Novel probiotic dissolvable carboxymethyl cellulose films as oral health biotherapeutics: in vitro preparation and characterization.
Authors: Saha S, Tomaro-Duchesneau C, Daoud JT, Tabrizian M, Prakash S.
Abstract: Objectives: Oral health is influenced by the mouth's resident microorganisms. Dental caries and periodontitis are oral disorders caused by imbalances in the oral microbiota. Probiotics have potential for the prevention and treatment of oral disorders. Current formulations, including supplements and foods, have limitations for oral delivery including short storage time, low residence time in the mouth, effects on food consistency, and low patient compliance. Oral thin films (OTFs) may be efficient in delivering...
Probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection among hospitalized patients: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Pattani R, Palda VA, Hwang SW, Shah PS.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are associated with high morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Probiotics may mitigate the existing disease burden. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of co-administration of probiotics with antibiotics in preventing these adverse outcomes in adult inpatients.METHODS: Systematic searches of MEDLINE (1946 to May 2012), Embase (1980 to May 2012), and the Cochrane Central Register...
The beneficial effect of the exopolysaccharides from Bifidobacterium bifidum WBIN03 on the microbial diversity in the mice intestine.
Authors: Li S, Chen T, Xu F, Dong S, Xu H, Wei H.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The structure of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by bifidobacterium and their beneficial effects on human health had been fully studied, while only few studies were carried out to investigate their influence on the microbial diversity in the human / animal intestine.RESULTS: The strain named Bifidobacterium bifidum WBIN03 with high growth rate and exopolysaccharides (EPS) yield was selected to study the effect of its EPS on modifying the intestinal microbiota of mice. The results indicated that...
Prophylactic Saccharomyces boulardii versus nystatin for the prevention of fungal colonization and invasive fungal infection in premature infants.
Authors: Demirel G, Celik IH, Erdeve O, Saygan S, Dilmen U, Canpolat FE.
Abstract: AIM: This study aims to compare the efficacy of orally administered Saccharomyces boulardii versus nystatin in prevention of fungal colonization and invasive fungal infections in very low birth weight infants.METHOD: A prospective, randomized comparative study was conducted in preterm infants with a gestational age of â‰¤32Â weeks and birth weight of â‰¤1,500Â g. They were randomized into two groups, to receive S. boulardii or nystatin. Skin and stool cultures were performed for colonization and...
Effect of dietary Bacillus subtilis on proportion of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in swine intestine and lipid metabolism.
Authors: Cui C, Shen CJ, Jia G, Wang KN.
Abstract: The ratio of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes bacterial groups in the gut can affect the ability to absorb nutrients. We investigated the effect of probiotic Bacillus subtilis supplementation of diets on growth performance, fat deposition, blood lipids, copy numbers, and percentage of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in cecal contents, as well as mRNA expression of key lipid metabolism enzymes in the liver and adipose tissue of finishing pigs. Twenty-four Duroc x Meishan crossbreed 8-week-old pigs (10.28 ± 0.59 kg)...
Advising Patients on the Use of Non-Herbal Nutritional Supplements During Cancer Therapy: A Need for Doctor-Patient Communication.
Authors: Ben-Arye E, Polliack A, Schiff E, Tadmor T, Samuels N.
Abstract: CONTEXT: Many cancer patients are using non-herbal nutritional supplements (NHNS), often without informing their oncologists.OBJECTIVES: To review the literature and summarize the beneficial effects and safety of NHNS in the prevention and reduction of treatment-related symptoms.METHODS: Databases were searched for randomized, controlled clinical trials (Jadad scoreÂ â‰¥Â 2) using AltHealthWatch, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase, MEDLINE, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Integrative Medicine Service...