Effects of dietary supplementation of probiotic Shewanella colwelliana WA64, Shewanella olleyana WA65 on the innate immunity and disease resistance of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino.
Authors: Jiang HF, Liu XL, Chang YQ, Liu MT, Wang GX.
Abstract: The effects of dietary administration of two probiotics, Shewanella colwelliana WA64 and Shewanella olleyana WA65, on the innate immunity of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino), and survival of juvenile abalone challenged with Vibrio harveyi have been studied. Two groups of abalone were fed with three different diets: one control, and two diets supplemented with 109 cell g-1 of probiotic WA64 (WA64 diet) and WA65 (WA65 diet) for up to four weeks. Results showed that abalone fed diets containing S. colwelliana...
Authors: Kuitunen M.
Abstract: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the current literature on clinical trials of probiotics for eczema and food allergy prevention in view of recent new approaches and long-term follow-ups.RECENT FINDINGS: Attempting allergy prevention by probiotic administration has been most successful when assessing atopic eczema, the most prevalent allergic disease at an early age. More than half of the published studies demonstrate a decrease in eczema prevalence until 2 years, whereas the remaining studies fail to show an effect....
Oral administration of Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 improves insulin resistance and ameliorates hepatic steatosis in high fructose-fed rats.
Authors: Hsieh FC, Lee CL, Chai CY, Chen WT, Lu YC, Wu CS.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), characterized by peripheral insulin resistance, is the most common form of diabetes. Probiotics are live micro-organisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer delaying effect on DM development. In this study, the effects Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 (Lr263), a new probiotic strain developed by our laboratory, on insulin resistance and the development of hepatic steatosis in high-fructose fed rats were explored. Furthermore, the relevant regulatory pathways...
Authors: Swami U, Goel S, Mani S.
Abstract: CPT-11 (irinotecan), a DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor is one of the main treatments for colorectal cancer. The main dose limiting toxicities are neutropenia and late onset diarrhea. Though neutropenia is manageable, CPT-11 induced diarrhea is frequently severe, resulting in hospitalizations, dose reductions or omissions leading to ineffective treatment administration. Many potential agents have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies to prevent or ameliorate CPT-11 induced late onset diarrhea. It is predicted...
Authors: Andriantsoanirina V, Allano S, Butel MJ, Aires J.
Abstract: Bifidobacteria are part of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and are used as probiotics in functional food products because of their health promoting properties. However, only few data are available on the phenotypic characteristics displayed by human bifidobacteria strain populations. In this study we compared the in vitro tolerance to acid, bile and oxygen of the largest number of independent human intestinal strains. Bile and acid tolerance varied among species and independent strains within a species:...
Modulatory effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on defecation in elderly patients receiving enteral feeding.
Authors: Kondo J, Xiao JZ, Shirahata A, Baba M, Abe A, Ogawa K, Shimoda T.
Abstract: AIM: To investigate the effects of the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on the health management of elderly patients receiving enteral feeding.METHODS: Two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were performed with long-term inpatients receiving enteral tube feeding at Kitakyushu Hospital Group, Fukuoka, Japan. BB536 was administered as BB536-L and BB536-H powders that contained approximately 2.5 × 10(10) and 5 × 10(10) cfu of BB536, respectively. In the first trial, 83 patients (age range: 67-101 years)...
Authors: Shenderov BA.
Abstract: Traditionally, probiotics on the base of live microorganisms are considered to be both beneficial and safe. Unfortunately, their effects may have short-term success or are absent or uncertain. Some symbiotic (probiotic) microorganisms with known beneficial health affects may cause opportunistic infections, increase incidence of allergic sensitization and autoimmune disorders, produce microecological imbalance, modify gene expression, transfer antibiotic resistant and virulence genes, cause disorders in epigenome...
Factors influencing the stability of freeze-dried stress-resilient and stress-sensitive strains of bifidobacteria.
Authors: Celik OF, O'Sullivan DJ.
Abstract: Freeze-drying is a common method for preservation of probiotics, including bifidobacteria, for further industrial applications. However, the stability of freeze-dried bifidobacteria varies depending on the freeze-drying method and subsequent storage conditions. The primary goals of this study were to develop an optimized freeze-drying procedure and to determine the effects of temperature, water activity, and atmosphere on survival of freeze-dried bifidobacteria. To address these goals, a commercially used bifidobacteria...
Authors: Ismail IH, Licciardi PV, Tang ML.
Abstract: The increasing prevalence of allergic disease has been linked to reduced microbial exposure in early life. Probiotics have recently been advocated for the prevention and treatment of allergic disease. This article summarises recent publications on probiotics in allergic disease, focusing on clinical studies of prevention or treatment of allergic disease. Studies employing the combined administration of pre-natal and post-natal probiotics suggest a role for certain probiotics (alone or with prebiotics) in the...
Authors: Marrs T, Bruce KD, Logan K, Rivett DW, Perkin MR, Lack G, Flohr C.
Abstract: The environmental factors driving the recent increase in the prevalence of food allergy (FA) are unclear. Since associations have been demonstrated between microbial exposure and the likelihood of eczema and respiratory allergies, we reviewed the evidence for FA. Medline was systematically searched from inception to the end of July 2012 for studies investigating links between FA and environmental exposures, likely to influence microbial exposure, such as Caesarean delivery, family size, day-care attendance,...
Authors: Ettinger G, Burton JP, Reid G.
Abstract: The increased incidence of morbidity and mortality due to Clostridium difficile infection, had led to the emergence of fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) as a highly successful treatment. From this, a 32 strain stool substitute has been derived, and successfully tested in a pilot human study. These approaches could revolutionize not only medical care of infectious diseases, but potentially many other conditions linked to the human microbiome. But a second revolution may be needed in order for regulatory agencies,...
Probiotics as a novel treatment for non-alcoholic Fatty liver disease; a systematic review on the current evidences.
Authors: Kelishadi R, Farajian S, Mirlohi M.
Abstract: CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease, with 5-10% of liver having extra fat. Increase in its prevalence in all age groups is linked with obesity and Type II diabetes. The treatment of NAFLD remains controversial. A growing body of evidence suggests a relation between overgrowth of gut microbiota with NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The objective of this review is to provide an overview on experimental and clinical studies assessing all positive and negative...
Robustness of Gut Microbiota of Healthy Adults in Response to Probiotic Intervention Revealed by High-Throughput Pyrosequencing.
Authors: Kim SW, Suda W, Kim S, Oshima K, Fukuda S, Ohno H, Morita H, Hattori M.
Abstract: Probiotics are live microorganisms that potentially confer beneficial outcomes to host by modulating gut microbiota in the intestine. The aim of this study was to comprehensively investigate effects of probiotics on human intestinal microbiota using 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes with an improved quantitative accuracy for evaluation of the bacterial composition. We obtained 158 faecal samples from 18 healthy adult Japanese who were subjected to intervention with 6 commercially available...
Isolation, identification, and growth determination of lactic acid-utilising yeasts from the ruminal fluid of dairy cattle.
Authors: Sirisan V, Pattarajinda V, Vichitphan K, Leesing R.
Abstract: Ruminal organic acid production, especially lactic acid, can be modified by feeding cattle highly concentrated diets, which have been shown to adversely affect dairy cattle health. Therefore, the use of lactic acid-utilising organisms is considered to be a potential method for controlling lactic acid levels. This study was conducted to isolate and identify lactic acid-utilising yeasts from the ruminal fluid of dairy cattle and to determine the specific growth rate and generation time when using lactic acid as...
Probiotic Administration Reduces Mortality and Improves Intestinal Epithelial Homeostasis in Experimental Sepsis.
Authors: Khailova L, Frank DN, Dominguez JA, Wischmeyer PE.
Abstract: BACKGROUND:: Recent clinical trials indicate that probiotic administration in critical illness has potential to reduce nosocomial infections and improve clinical outcome. However, the mechanism(s) of probiotic-mediated protection against infection and sepsis remain elusive. The authors evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium longum (BL) on mortality, bacterial translocation, intestinal epithelial homeostasis, and inflammatory response in experimental model of septic peritonitis....
Authors: Massironi S, Rossi RE, Cavalcoli FA, Della Valle S, Fraquelli M, Conte D.
Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Malnutrition is common in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), mainly in Crohn's disease (CD) because the small bowel is primarily affected. We reviewed the literature to highlight the importance of proper nutrition management.METHODS: A PubMed search was performed for English-language publications from 1999 through 2012. Manuscripts comparing nutritional approaches for IBD patients were selected.RESULTS: We identified 2025 manuscripts: six meta-analyses, 170 clinical-trials, 692 reviews....
Authors: Webb GJ, Brooke R, De Silva AN.
Abstract: Radiation enteritis is defined as the loss of absorptive capacity of the bowel following irradiation, which is most commonly seen after radiotherapy for pelvic and abdominal malignancies. It is divided into acute and chronic forms, and is usually presented with diarrhea and malabsorption. Malnutrition is a common complication of chronic radiation enteritis (CRE). We mainly reviewed the etiology, prevalence, symptoms, diagnosis and management of CRE and CRE with malnutrition in this article. Functional short...
Inhibition of Streptococcus pneumoniae adherence to human epithelial cells in vitro by the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.
Authors: Wong SS, Quan Toh Z, Dunne EM, Mulholland EK, Tang ML, Robins-Browne RM, Licciardi PV, Satzke C.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Colonization of the nasopharynx by Streptococcus pneumoniae is considered a prerequisite for pneumococcal infections such as pneumonia and otitis media. Probiotic bacteria can influence disease outcomes through various mechanisms, including inhibition of pathogen colonization. Here, we examine the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on S. pneumoniae colonization of human epithelial cells using an in vitro model. We investigated the effects of LGG administered before, at the same...
Effects of Lactobacillus helveticus on murine behavior are dependent on diet and genotype and correlate with alterations in the gut microbiome.
Authors: Ohland CL, Kish L, Bell H, Thiesen A, Hotte N, Pankiv E, Madsen KL.
Abstract: Modulation of the gut microbiota with diet and probiotic bacteria can restore intestinal homeostasis in inflammatory conditions and alter behavior via the gut-brain axis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the modulatory effects of probiotics differ depending on diet and mouse genotype. At weaning, wild type (WT) and IL-10 deficient (IL-10-/-) 129/SvEv mice were placed on a standard mouse chow or a Western-style diet (fat 33%, refined carbohydrate 49%)±Lactobacillus helveticus ROO52 (109cfu/d)...
Comparative therapeutic effect of probiotic Lactobacillus casei alone and in conjunction with antiprotozoal drugs in murine giardiasis.
Authors: Shukla G, Kaur H, Sharma L.
Abstract: Various antiprotozoal drugs have been used to counteract the spread of giardiasis. However, due to increase in resistance to these compounds, there is an urgent need to find a natural biocompatible product to fight the pathogen in more healthy and effective way. The present study was designed to compare the therapeutic effect of probiotic Lactobacillus casei alone and in conjunction with antiprotozoal drugs on the outcome of giardiasis in murine model. BALB/c mice were challenged with Giardia intestinalis trophozoites,...
Authors: Buda B, Dylus E, Górska-Frączek S, Brzozowska E, Gamian A.
Abstract: Lactobacillus, a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, includes many strains of probiotic microflora. Probiotics, by definition, are living microorganisms that exert beneficial effects on the host organism. The morphology and physiology of the Lactobacillus bacterial genus are described. The structure of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria is discussed. The surface S-layer of Lactobacillus composed of proteins (SLP) with low molecular mass is presented. Cell surface proteins participating in the regulation of...
Authors: Levi JR, Brody RM, McKee-Cole K, Pribitkin E, O'Reilly R.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To review the literature involving complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for pediatric otitis media. Multiple modalities are discussed, including prevention involving breastfeeding, nutrition, and vaccination; symptomatic treatment involving homeopathy, natural health products, and probiotics; manual manipulations involving osteopathy and chiropractics; and traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine. The information presented will assist physicians in advising patients on their decision-making...
Probiotics in colorectal cancer (CRC) with emphasis on mechanisms of actions and current prospectives.
Authors: Kahouli I, Tomaro-Duchesneau C, Prakash S.
Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common form of human cancer. Diverse therapies such as surgery and chemotherapy have shown excellent results in CRC. However, they still have limitations. There is a need to develop new CRC treatment strategies. Probiotic formulations have shown excellent promises in CRC as modest, preventive and early stage therapeutics. This review summarizes the recent development of probiotics in CRC and highlights the importance of the intestinal microbiota balance in CRC, cover...
Omega-3 fatty acid-, micronutrient-, and probiotic-enriched nutrition helps body weight stabilization in head and neck cancer cachexia.
Authors: Yeh KY, Wang HM, Chang JW, Huang JS, Lai CH, Lan YJ, Wu TH, Chang PH, Wang H, Wu CJ, Hsia S, Wang CH.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether an oral nutritional supplement enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, micronutrients, and probiotics affected body weight (BW) changes, serum albumin and prealbumin levels in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) cachexia.STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-eight HNC patients were randomly assigned to receive either an Ethanwell/Ethanzyme (EE) regimen enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, micronutrients, and probiotics, or control (Isocal) for a 3-month period. Analysis of covariance was used to examine...
Fecal excretion of Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 and changes in fecal microbiota after eight weeks of oral supplementation with encapsulated probiotic.
Authors: Charbonneau D, Gibb RD, Quigley EM.
Abstract: Certain randomized, placebo-controlled trials of oral supplementation with B. infantis 35624 have demonstrated the amelioration of symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Potential GI colonization by B. infantis 35624 or effects of supplementation on resident GI microbiota may pertain to these clinical observations. In this study, fecal excretion of B. infantis 35624 before, during and after 8 weeks of daily treatment was compared in subjects with IBS who received either the encapsulated oral supplement (n = 39)...