Hrana in zdravje


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30.08.2013


Authors: Haywood BA, Black KE, Baker D, McGarvey J, Healey P, Brown RC.

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The attenuation of the number and severity of infections is of importance to athletes. Probiotics use has increased over recent years with beneficial effects believed to include improvements in immune function. Research has focused on their effectiveness for reducing the number, duration and severity of infections amongst endurance athletes. At present no research has been undertaken with team sport athletes. This randomised controlled trial aimed to determine the effectiveness of probiotics on the...


30.08.2013


Authors: Kim JH, Chan CS, Vaucher YE, Stellwagen LM.

Abstract: The use of human milk for preterm infants has increased over the past decade reflecting an improved awareness of the benefits of human milk. Inherent in this paradigm shift is the recognition that human milk is a living tissue; full of immune cells, probiotics and hundreds of compounds that confer bioactivity and immune protective properties. Together these factors deliver a powerful effect in reducing clinical morbidities such as necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis in the preterm infant. However, as breastfeeding...


30.08.2013


Authors: Zhan-Jiang C, Jian-Chun Y, Wei-Ming K, Zhi-Qiang M.

Abstract: Human gut microbiota plays a key role in the development of obesity.Intestinal flora can regulate energy absorption and nutrition metabolism,increasing the energy harvesting from diet.Alteration of gut flora produces excessive lipopolysaccharide,which,when absorbed into the blood,can induce inflammatory reactions and promote the high-fat diet-associated obesity and metabolic syndrome.Intestinal flora increase visceral fat deposition by lowering the expression of Fiaf in intestinal mucosa.Different immune status...


30.08.2013


Authors: Thantsha MS, Labuschagne PW, Mamvura CI.

Abstract: The probiotic industry faces the challenge of retention of probiotic culture viability as numbers of these cells within their products inevitably decrease over time. In order to retain probiotic viability levels above the therapeutic minimum over the duration of the product's shelf life, various methods have been employed, among which encapsulation has received much interest. In line with exploitation of encapsulation for protection of probiotics against adverse conditions, we have previously encapsulated bifidobacteria...


29.08.2013


Authors: Kapila R, Sebastian R, Phani Varma D V, Sharma R, Kapasiya M, Salingati V, Kapila S, Dang A.

Abstract: The present investigation aimed at identifying the effects of three different species of probiotic lactobacilli in modulating cellular immune response in neutrophils and macrophages over a study period of 60 days. Neutrophil respiratory burst enzymes (cytochrome c reductase and myeloperoxidase) showed a remarkable increased activity (P ≤ 0.01) after consumption of milks fermented by different species of probiotics over 30 and 60 days of feeding trials. Enzyme activities (β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase)...


29.08.2013


Authors: Rubido S, Fernández-Feijoo J, Limeres J, García-Caballero L, Abeleira MT, Diz P.

Abstract: Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyse the antibacterial and antiplaque activity of three edible toothpastes with the widest worldwide distribution: KidScents™, which contains essential oils; Browning B& B™, with medicinal plants; and Wysong Probiodent™, which contains probiotics. Study Design: The study group was formed of twenty healthy volunteers (dental students) with a good oral health status. Using a balanced randomisation system, all volunteers performed toothbrushing with four...


28.08.2013


Authors: Hutchins RG, Bailey CS, Jacob ME, Harris TL, Wood MW, Saker KE, Vaden SL.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are often difficult to treat. Vaginal colonization with lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) is associated with reduced frequency of recurrent UTIs in women. Oral probiotics might help increase the prevalence of vaginal LAB and decrease the frequency of recurrent UTIs in dogs.HYPOTHESIS: Administration of an oral probiotic supplement containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Bacillus species will increase the prevalence of LAB in the vagina of dogs.ANIMALS:...


28.08.2013


Authors: Cheow WS, Hadinoto K.

Abstract: Microcapsules containing high-density biofilm-like Lactobacillus rhamnosus probiotics, in place of planktonic cells, are developed in order to enhance the cell viability upon exposures to stresses commonly encountered during food lifecycle (i.e., heating, freeze-drying, refrigerated storage, and acid). The high-density (HD) capsules are prepared by in situ cultivation of the planktonic cells in the confined space of polysaccharide-based capsules (i.e., chitosan-coated alginate and carrageenan capsules). Compared...


27.08.2013


Authors: Vajro P, Mandato C, D'Aniello R.

Abstract: ...


27.08.2013


Authors: Hungin AP, Mulligan C, Pot B, Whorwell P, Agréus L, Fracasso P, Lionis C, Mendive J, Philippart de Foy JM, Rubin G, Winchester C, de Wit N; European Society for Primary Care Gastroenterology.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the gut microbiota play an important role in gastrointestinal problems.AIM: To give clinicians a practical reference guide on the role of specified probiotics in managing particular lower gastrointestinal symptoms/problems by means of a systematic review-based consensus.METHODS: Systematic literature searching identified randomised, placebo-controlled trials in adults; evidence for each symptom/problem was graded and statements developed (consensus process; 10-member panel)....


27.08.2013


Authors: Smith K.

Abstract: ...


26.08.2013


Authors: Rajput IR, Hussain A, Li YL, Zhang X, Xu X, Mao YL, You DY, Li WF.

Abstract: Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that play a critical role to activate immune response. They may be targeted for immunomodulation by microbes, including probiotics. In this study, chicken bone marrow dendrite cells (chi-BMDCs) were stimulated with lipopolysachride (LPS), Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb), Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs), co-culture of Sb + Bs and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as a control group (Ctr) at 3 h, 6 h and 12 h intervals. Results revealed that treatment...


25.08.2013


Authors: Karthik V1, Kamalakannan V, Thomas A, Sudheer NS, Singh IS, Narayanan RB.

Abstract: Lysozyme gene from Fenneropenaeus indicus was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. The cDNA consists of 477 base pairs and encodes amino acid sequence of 159 residues. F. indicus lysozyme had high identity (98 %) with Fenneropenaeus merguiensis and Fenneropenaeus chinensis and exhibits low to moderate identities with lysozymes of other invertebrates and vertebrates. This lysozyme is presumed to be chicken types as it possesses two catalytic and eight cysteine residues that are conserved...


25.08.2013


Authors: Orlando A, Russo F.

Abstract: ...


25.08.2013


Authors: Ko JS.

Abstract: Advances in sequencing technology and the development of metagenomics have opened up new ways to investigate the microorganisms inhabiting the human gut. The intestinal microbiota confer protection against pathogens, contribute to the maturation of the immune system, and regulate host metabolism. The composition of gut microbiota in early life is influenced by mode of birth, diet, and antibiotics. Decreased biodiversity and alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota have been observed in many...


24.08.2013


Authors: Serban ED.

Abstract: Cancers of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract continue to represent a major health problem, despite progress in therapy. Gut microbiota is a key element related to the genesis of GI cancers, countless papers addressing this burning issue across the world. We provide an updated knowledge of the involvement of gut microbiota in GI tumorigenesis, including its underlying mechanisms. We present also a comprehensive review of the evidence from animal and clinical studies using probiotics and/or prebiotics in the prevention...


22.08.2013


Authors: Mookiah S, Sieo CC, Ramasamy K, Abdullah N, Ho YW.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: In view of a worldwide attempt to restrict or ban the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal production, probiotics, prebiotics and combinations of both as synbiotics have been suggested as potential alternatives. In this study, the effects of a prebiotic (isomaltooligosaccharides, IMO), a multistrain probiotic (consisting of 11 Lactobacillus strains), and a combination of these dietary additives as a synbiotic on the performance, caecal bacterial populations and concentrations of caecal...


22.08.2013


Authors: Prakash RK, Kanna S, Mullen KD.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), which may be categorized as minimal or overt, is a serious and progressive neuropsychiatric condition that occurs in patients with liver disease or portosystemic shunting. Overt HE (OHE) presents as a wide spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms, ranging in severity from mild confusion to life-threatening coma. Minimal HE (MHE) is a more subtle form of the condition; it is characterized by deficits in cognitive function in patients with a normal clinical examination.OBJECTIVE:...


21.08.2013


Authors: Ghosh A, Borst L, Stauffer SH, Suyemoto M, Moisan P, Zurek L, Gookin JL.

Abstract: Approximately ∼15% of foster kittens die before 8-wks of age with most of these kittens demonstrating clinical signs or post-mortem evidence of enteritis. While a specific cause of enteritis is not determined in most cases; these kittens are often empirically administered probiotics that contain enterococci. The enterococci are members of the commensal intestinal microbiota but can also function as opportunistic pathogens. Given the complicated role of enterococci in health and disease, it would be valuable...


20.08.2013


Authors: Frontiers in Endocrinology Editorial Office.

Abstract: ...


20.08.2013


Authors: Argañaraz-Martínez E, Babot JD, Apella MC, Perez Chaia A.

Abstract: The prevention and control of pathogens colonization through probiotics administration in poultry feeding is of increasing interest. The genus Propionibacterium is an attractive candidate for the development of probiotic cultures as they produce short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by carbohydrates fermentation. The presence of strains of this genus in hens of conventional production systems and backyard hens was investigated. Propionibacteria were isolated from the intestine and identified by physiological and biochemical...


20.08.2013


Authors: Kumar S, Singhi S, Chakrabarti A, Bansal A, Jayashree M.

Abstract: OBJECTIVES:: To compare the prevalence of candidemia and candiduria before and after the introduction of routine use of probiotics in children who received broad-spectrum antibiotics in a PICU.DESIGN:: Retrospective "before and after" study.SETTING:: A 12-bed PICU of a teaching hospital in India.PATIENTS:: Children 3 months to 12 years old, admitted to the PICU over two 9 months' time periods, who received broad-spectrum antibiotics for more than 48 hours.INTERVENTIONS:: Three hundred forty-four patients enrolled...


20.08.2013


Authors: Grace E, Shaw C, Whelan K, Andreyev HJ.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The symptoms and signs of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) are often identical to a variety of diseases and can lead to diagnostic confusion.AIMS: To review the diagnostic options for SIBO and present new investigative options for the condition.METHODS: A literature search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for English articles and abstracts. Search terms included free text words and combinations of the following terms 'small intestinal bacterial overgrowth', 'small bowel...


20.08.2013


Authors: Chen SL.

Abstract: The managements of functional dyspepsia (FD) are challenges for gastroenterologists in clinical practice. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), the utility of antacids, prokinetics and antidepressants are recommended as the treatment choices for FD by consensus. Unlike in Europe and the United States, H. pylori eradication can lead to a higher proportion of FD patients with symptom relief and a higher symptom response rate to prokinetics in Asia. And the response rates to anti-secretory drugs such...


20.08.2013


Authors: Mehal WZ.

Abstract: The development of obesity and NAFLD is known to be determined by host genetics, diet and lack of exercise. In addition, the gut microbiota has been identified to influence the development of both obesity and NAFLD. Evidence for the role of the gut microbiota has been shown by preclinical studies of transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese individuals, with the recipient developing the metabolic features of the donor. Many bidirectional interactions of the gut microbiota, including with food, bile and...



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