Clostridium difficile exposure as an insidious source of infection in healthcare settings: an epidemiological model.
Authors: Yakob L, Riley TV, Paterson DL, Clements AC.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Its epidemiology has shifted in recent years from almost exclusively infecting elderly patients in whom the gut microbiota has been disturbed by antimicrobials, to now also infecting individuals of all age groups with no recent antimicrobial use.METHODS: A stochastic mathematical model was constructed to simulate the modern epidemiology of C. difficile in a healthcare setting, and, to compare the efficacies...
The effect of Protexin on prevention of ileocecal infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy calves.
Authors: Badiei A, Moosakhani F, Hamidi A, Sami M.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Protexin (Probiotics International Ltd., South Petherton, UK) in the prevention of ileocecal infection by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in dairy calves in the field situation. Forty Holstein bull calves whose dams were paratuberculosis negative (confirmed by serum ELISA test and fecal nested PCR) were randomly selected in 2 groups. All calves were fed raw milk collected from the bulk tank in a paratuberculosis-infected dairy farm, which...
The effect of increasing the nutrient and amino acid concentration of milk diets on dairy heifer individual feed intake, growth, development, and lactation performance.
Authors: Margerison JK, Robarts AD, Reynolds GW.
Abstract: Increasing early (<3 mo) nutrient feeding levels and growth rate of dairy calves has been found to increase their milk production potential. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of offering milk diets with or without added carbohydrates and amino acids on calf growth, weaning age, and subsequent growth and milk yield of dairy heifers in their first lactation. Friesian calves born at Massey University (n = 57) were selected at random, weighed, and allocated to receive 1 of 3 diets. All calves...
Authors: Fitzpatrick LR.
Abstract: The purpose of this review paper is to update the current and potential future role of probiotics for Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD). Included in this review, is an update on the testing of newer probiotics (e.g., Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086) in animal models of CDAD. There is a focus on the modulation of signal transduction pathways (i.e., transcription factors like cAMP response element-binding, activator protein 1, and nuclear factor kappa B), as well as the inhibition of certain kinases...
Changes in selected parameters related to proteolysis during ageing of dry-cured pork loins inoculated with probiotics.
Authors: Stadnik J, Dolatowski ZJ.
Abstract: The effect of inoculation with a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus casei ŁOCK 0900, on selected parameters related to proteolysis of dry-cured pork loins during ageing was studied. Moisture content decreased significantly (p<0.05) throughout ageing, accompanied by a progressive reduction in water activity. The total nitrogen (TN) content increased during ageing with no effect (p<0.05) of inoculation with L. casei on its level. The greatest increase in non-protein nitrogen (NPN) content during ageing occurred...
Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 Induce Different Age-Related Metabolic Profiles Revealed by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy in Urine and Feces of Mice.
Authors: Brasili E, Mengheri E, Tomassini A, Capuani G, Roselli M, Finamore A, Sciubba F, Marini F, Miccheli A.
Abstract: Age-related dysbioses of intestinal microbiota and decline in the overall metabolic homeostasis are frequently found in the elderly. Probiotic supplementation may represent a way to prevent or reduce the senescence-associated metabolic disorders. The present study evaluated the metabolic impact of Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 supplementation in relation to age by analyzing urine and feces metabolic profiles using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis....
Probiotic VSL#3-induced TGF-β ameliorates food allergy inflammation in a mouse model of peanut sensitization through the induction of regulatory T cells in the gut mucosa.
Authors: Barletta B, Rossi G, Schiavi E, Butteroni C, Corinti S, Boirivant M, Di Felice G.
Abstract: SCOPE: Among food allergies, peanut allergy is frequently associated with severe anaphylactic reactions. In the need for safe and effective therapeutic strategies, probiotics may be considered on the basis of their immunomodulatory properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunological mediators involved in the effects of probiotic VSL#3 oral supplementation on Th2 inflammation and anaphylaxis in a mouse model of peanut allergy.METHODS AND RESULTS: VSL#3 supplementation to peanut-sensitized...
Authors: Assathiany R, Guedj R, Bocquet A, Thiebault G, Salinier C, Girardet JP; l’Association française de pédiatrie ambulatoire.
Abstract: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a very common reason for pediatric consultations. Various expert committees have issued guidelines for its management, based on systematic use of an oral rehydration solution (ORS), early appropriate nutrition (most recent previous diet), and avoiding routine treatment with medication. The aim of the study was to assess the application of these guidelines by pediatricians in outpatient practice for mild to moderate AGE. A secondary objective was to question pediatricians about...
Authors: Niwa T.
Abstract: Introduction: Protein-bound uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate cannot be removed efficiently by hemodialysis. These protein-bound uremic toxins have emerged as important risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Areas covered: Indoxyl sulfate shows toxic effects on a variety of cells such as renal proximal tubular cells, glomerular mesangial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts,...
Authors: Power SE, O'Toole PW, Stanton C, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF.
Abstract: The human intestine is colonised by 1013 to 1014 micro-organisms, the vast majority of which belong to the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Although highly stable over time, the composition and activities of the microbiota may be influenced by a number of factors including age, diet and antibiotic treatment. Although perturbations in the composition or functions of the microbiota are linked to inflammatory and metabolic disorders (e.g. inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome and obesity), it...
Impact of Adding Prophylactic Probiotics to a Bundle of Standard Preventative Measures for Clostridium difficile Infections: Enhanced and Sustained Decrease in the Incidence and Severity of Infection at a Community Hospital.
Authors: Maziade PJ, Andriessen A, Pereira P, Currie B, Goldstein EJ.
Abstract: Background: In 2003, hospitals in Quebec (Canada) experienced an increase of NAP1/027 Clostridium difficile infections following antibiotic administration (CDIAA). At Pierre-Le Gardeur Hospital (PLGH), the incidence increased from 10 to over 25 cases per 1000 patient admissions. Methods: We report a quasi-experimental, prospective cohort study evaluating the effect on CDIAA of a probiotic added to existing C. difficile infection (CDI) standard preventative measures (SPM) in 31832 hospitalized patients receiving...
Dietary probiotic supplementation (Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11) modulates gut microbiota and promotes growth and condition in Senegalese sole larviculture.
Authors: Lobo C, Moreno-Ventas X, Tapia-Paniagua S, Rodríguez C, Moriñigo MA, de La Banda IG.
Abstract: Probiotic supplementation in fish aquaculture has significantly increased in the last decade due to its beneficial effect on fish performance. Probiotic use at early stages of fish development may contribute to better face metamorphosis and weaning stress. In the present work, we studied the influence of Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 supplementation on growth, body composition and gut microbiota in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) during larval and weaning development. S. putrefaciens Pdp11 was incorporated...
Authors: Zamfir M, Grosu-Tudor SS.
Abstract: Understanding the mechanisms of stress response and adaptation to stress in the case of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially in the case of strains with functional properties, is very important when such strains are potential candidates for starter cultures or probiotics. In this context, our study shows the response of some LAB [four exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strains and one strain with potential probiotic effect] to the stresses induced by low and high incubation temperatures, acidity, NaCl, and...
Authors: Nermes M, Salminen S, Isolauri E.
Abstract: A balanced gut microbiota is crucial for the development of healthy immunoregulation and gut barrier function to allow brisk immune responses to pathogens and systemic hyporesponsiveness to harmless antigens such as food. Although the first allergic disease to manifest itself, atopic eczema, is not equivalent to food allergy, pre- and postnatal administration of specific probiotic strains has emerged as a promising tool for the prevention of this condition, with potential implications for food allergy development....
Authors: Chiu YH, Lu YC, Ou CC, Lin SL, Tsai CC, Huang CT, Lin MY.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the major types of chronic inflammatory bowel disease occurring in the colon and small intestine. A growing body of research has proposed that probiotics are able to attenuate the inflammatory symptoms of these diseases in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of probiotic actions remains unclear.RESULTS: Our results suggested Lactobacillus plantarum MYL26 inhibited inflammation in Caco-2 cells through regulation of gene expressions of TOLLIP, SOCS1,...
The role of intestinal microflora and probiotic bacteria in prophylactic and development of colorectal cancer.
Authors: Wasilewska E, ZÅ‚otkowska D, Pijagin ME.
Abstract: The gut microbiota comprises a large and diverse range of microorganisms whose activities have a significant impact on health. It interacts with its host at both the local and systemic level, resulting in a broad range of beneficial or detrimental outcomes for nutrition, infections, xenobiotic metabolism, and cancer. The current paper reviews research on the role of intestinal microflora in colorectal cancer development. Especially a protective effect of beneficial bacteria and probiotics on the risk of cancer...
Consent, including advanced consent, of older adults to research in care homes: a qualitative study of stakeholders' views in South Wales.
Authors: Wood F, Prout H, Bayer A, Duncan D, Nuttall J, Hood K, Butler CC.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Care home residents, especially those lacking capacity to provide consent for themselves, are frequently excluded from research, thus limiting generalisability of study findings. We set out to explore stakeholders' views about the ethical and practical challenges associated with recruiting care home residents into research studies.METHODS: Qualitative individual interviews with care home residents (n = 14), their relatives (n = 14), and general practitioners (GPs) (n = 10), and focus groups (n =...
Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins…New Targets to Prevent Insulin Resistance and Dysmetabolism in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.
Authors: Soulage CO, Koppe L, Fouque D.
Abstract: The retention of p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), the prototype of protein-bound uremic toxins that is produced by the gut microbiota and normally excreted by the kidney, may contribute to the development of insulin resistance in patients with chronic kidney disease. In a recent study, we demonstrated in mice, as in cultured muscle cells, that PCS interferes with intracellular insulin signaling pathways and triggers insulin resistance. The treatment of CKD mice with a prebiotic that reduces the intestinal production...
Short communication: Influence of long-chain inulin and Lactobacillus paracasei subspecies paracasei on the sensory profile and acceptance of a traditional yogurt.
Authors: Pimentel TC, Cruz AG, Prudencio SH.
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of the addition of long-chain inulin as a fat replacer and prebiotic agent (20 g/L) and (or) probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei on the sensory profile and acceptance of yogurts, and to assess the influence of descriptive attributes on the sensory acceptance of the products. The addition of inulin to low-fat yogurt improved its brightness and firmness, which was similar to the full-fat yogurt. However, the use of long-chain inulin increased...
Combined effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide and Bacillus licheniformis on innate immunity, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of triangular bream (Megalobrama terminalis).
Authors: Zhang CN, Li XF, Xu WN, Jiang GZ, Lu KL, Wang LN, Liu WB.
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) and their interaction on innate immunity, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of triangular bream Megalobrama terminalis (average initial weight 30.5±0.5g). Nine experimental diets was formulated to contain three FOS levels (0, 0.3% and 0.6%) and three B. licheniformis levels (0, 1—107, 5—107 CFU g-1) according to a 3—3 factorial design. At the end of the 8-week feeding...
Authors: Kmietowicz Z.
A pilot study on the effect of a symbiotic mixture in irritable bowel syndrome: an open-label, partially controlled, 6-month extension of a previously published trial.
Authors: Bucci C, Tremolaterra F, Gallotta S, Fortunato A, Cappello C, Ciacci C, Iovino P.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In recent years, the efficacy of probiotics has received considerable attention in the treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this regard, a symbiotic mixture (Probinul®) has shown beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to extend the previously published 4-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of this symbiotic mixture.METHODS: This is an open-label prospective, partially controlled, 6-month extension period pilot study in which patients continued to receive...
Probiotic supplementation decreases intestinal transit time: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Authors: Miller LE, Ouwehand AC.
Abstract: AIM: To determine the efficacy of probiotic supplementation on intestinal transit time (ITT) and to identify factors that influence these outcomes.METHODS: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of probiotic supplementation that measured ITT in adults was conducted by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE using relevant key word combinations. Main search limits included RCTs of probiotic supplementation in healthy or constipated adults that measured ITT. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad...
Effectiveness of Probiotic Phaeobacter Bacteria Grown in Biofilters Against Vibrio anguillarum Infections in the Rearing of Turbot (Psetta maxima) Larvae.
Authors: Prol-García MJ, Pintado J.
Abstract: The rearing environment of first-feeding turbot larvae, usually with high larvae densities and organic matter concentrations, may promote the growth of opportunistic pathogenic Vibrionaceae bacteria, compromising the survival of the larvae. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the biofilm-forming probiotic Phaeobacter 27-4 strain grown on a ceramic biofilter (probiofilter) in preventing Vibrio anguillarum infections in turbot larvae. In seawater with added microalgae and maintained under...
Authors: Ozdemir O.
Abstract: Probiotic use as capable preventive and therapeutic strategy in different diseases varying from allergic to autoimmune disease (AD) has been recently reported. Three interacting factors including an aberrant intestinal microbiota, a "leaky" intestinal mucosal barrier, and altered intestinal immune responsiveness have been suggested to be able to create a "perfect environment" for AD development. Regulation of intestinal microflora composition by probiotics offers the possibility to influence the development...