Authors: Dimitrov DV, Hoeng J.
Abstract: Current microbiome research has generated tremendous amounts of data providing snapshots of molecular activity in a variety of organisms, environments, and cell types. However, turning this knowledge into whole system level of understanding on pathways and processes has proven to be a challenging task. In this review we highlight the applicability of bioinformatics and visualization techniques to large collections of data in order to better understand the information that contains related diet-oral microbiome-host...
Authors: O'Horo JC, Jindai K, Kunzer B, Safdar N.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurs in nearly one-third of patients who develop an initial infection. Recurrent CDI (RCDI) is associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, and cost. Treatment for RCDI has not been not well examined.METHODS: A systematic review.RESULTS: Sixty-four articles were identified evaluating eight different treatment approaches: metronidazole, vancomycin, fidaxomicin, nitazoxanide, rifampin, immunoglobulins, probiotics, and fecal bacteriotherapy. The meta-analysis...
Pathobiology and Potential Therapeutic Value of Intestinal Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Gut Inflammation and Obesity.
Authors: Soldavini J, Kaunitz JD.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The lumen of the gastrointestinal tract contains many substances produced from the breakdown of foodstuffs, from salivary, esophageal, intestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic secretions, and from sloughed cells present in the gastrointestinal lumen. Although these substances were traditionally regarded as waste products, there is increasing realization that many can be biologically active, either as signalling compounds or as nutrients. For example, proteins are broken down into amino acids, which are...
Volunteer bias in recruitment, retention, and blood sample donation in a randomised controlled trial involving mothers and their children at six months and two years: a longitudinal analysis.
Authors: Jordan S, Watkins A, Storey M, Allen SJ, Brooks CJ, Garaiova I, Heaven ML, Jones R, Plummer SF, Russell IT, Thornton CA, Morgan G.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The vulnerability of clinical trials to volunteer bias is under-reported. Volunteer bias is systematic error due to differences between those who choose to participate in studies and those who do not.METHODS AND RESULTS: This paper extends the applications of the concept of volunteer bias by using data from a trial of probiotic supplementation for childhood atopy in healthy dyads to explore 1) differences between a) trial participants and aggregated data from publicly available databases b) participants...
Treating cow's milk protein allergy: a double-blind randomised trial comparing two extensively hydrolysed formulas with probiotics.
Authors: Vandenplas Y; Althera Study Group, Steenhout P, Planoudis Y, Grathwohl D.
Abstract: AIM: The treatment for cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a diet with an extensive hydrolysate. This study aimed to determine whether a whey (eWH) or casein hydrolysate (eCH) is the best option.METHODS: Infants with suspected CMPA were treated with an eWH or eCH and efficacy was assessed with a symptom-based score developed by the authors. Diagnosis of CMPA was based on a positive challenge. If positive, the same eHF/eCH was continued. If negative a standard starter and follow-up formula was given up to the...
Authors: Endo A, Salminen S.
Abstract: Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are a specific group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) characterized and described only recently. They prefer fructose as growth substrate and inhabit only fructose-rich niches. Honeybees are high-fructose-consuming insects and important pollinators in nature, but reported to be decreasing in the wild. In the present study, we analyzed FLAB microbiota in honeybees, larvae, fresh honey and bee pollen. A total of 66 strains of LAB were isolated from samples using a selective...
Authors: Yadav H, Lee JH, Lloyd J, Walter P, Rane SG.
Abstract: Obesity and diabetes is associated with excess caloric intake and reduced energy expenditure resulting in a negative energy balance. Diabetes incidence has reached epidemic proportions and childhood diabetes and obesity is on an alarming increase. Therefore, it is important to develop safe, easily deliverable and economically viable treatment alternatives for these diseases. Here, we provide data supporting the candidacy of probiotics as such a therapeutic modality against obesity and diabetes. Probiotics are...
Effects of Oral Administration of Probiotics from Mongolian Dairy Products on the Th1 Immune Response in Mice.
Authors: Takeda S, Kawahara S, Hidaka M, Yoshida H, Watanabe W, Takeshita M, Kikuchi Y, Bumbein D, Muguruma M, Kurokawa M.
Abstract: We investigated 10 lactic acid bacteria strains with probiotic potential prepared from Mongolian dairy products for their ability to induce T helper type-1 (Th1) cytokine production in mouse immune cells in vitro and in vivo. Among these strains, the Lactobacillus plantarum 06CC2 strain was effective in elevating the level of interleukin (IL)-12p40 in co-culture with J774.1 cells and the levels of IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-Î³ in co-culture with mouse spleen cells in vitro. Oral administration of this strain...
Authors: Liu DQ, Gao QY, Liu HB, Li DH, Wu SW.
Abstract: AIM: To investigate the benefits of probiotics treatment in septic rats.METHODS: The septic rats were induced by cecal ligation and puncture. The animals of control, septic model and probiotics treated groups were treated with vehicle and mixed probiotics, respectively. The mixture of probiotics included Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. We observed the survival of septic rats using different amounts of mixed probiotics. We also detected the bacterial population...
Authors: Cagetti MG, Mastroberardino S, Milia E, Cocco F, Lingström P, Campus G.
Abstract: This paper aims to provide a systematic review of the caries-prevention effect of probiotics in human. The hypothesis was that the administration of probiotic strains might play a role in caries lesion prevention and in the control of caries-related risk factors. The main relevant databases (Medline, Embase) were searched. Quality of the Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) was classified using the "Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials" (CONSORT) checklist and the Impact Factor (IF) value of each journal...
Effect of multi-species probiotics on irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Authors: Yoon JS, Sohn W, Lee OY, Lee SP, Lee KN, Jun DW, Lee HL, Yoon BC, Choi HS, Chung WS, Seo JG.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIM: We investigated the efficacy of treatment with multi-species probiotics on IBS symptoms and the alterations of gut microbiota in patients who have taken probiotics.METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involved 49 IBS patients (probiotics: 25, placebo: 24) diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: either to receive multi-species probiotics (a mixture of Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium...
Bacillus subtilis natto: a non-toxic source of poly-gamma-glutamic acid that could be used as a cryoprotectant for probiotic bacteria.
Authors: Bhat AR, Irorere VU, Bartlett T, Hill D, Kedia G, Morris MR, Charalampopoulos D, Radecka I.
Abstract: It is common practice to freeze dry probiotic bacteria to improve their shelf life. However, the freeze drying process itself can be detrimental to their viability. The viability of probiotics could be maintained if they are administered within a microbially produced biodegradable polymer - poly-gamma-glutamic acid (gamma-PGA) - matrix. Although the antifreeze activity of gamma-PGA is well known, it has not been used for maintaining the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying. The aim of this study...
Authors: Tobin JM, Garland SM, Jacobs SE, Pirotta M, Tabrizi SN.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Colonization of the intestine with some microorganisms has been shown to have beneficial health effects. The association of bacteria with its human host starts soon after birth; however in infants born prematurely establishment of normal intestinal flora is interrupted with colonization with potential pathogenic organisms Probiotic supplementation may therefore be beneficial to the health of preterm infants. As most probiotic organisms are difficult to culture, confirmation of their colonization...
In Vitro Antibacterial Mechanism of Action of Crude Garlic (Allium sativum) Clove Extract on Selected Probiotic Bifidobacterium Species as Revealed by SEM, TEM, and SDS-PAGE Analysis.
Authors: Booyens J1, Labuschagne MC, Thantsha MS.
Abstract: There has been much research on the effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on numerous pathogens, but very few, if any, studies on its effect on beneficial, probiotic bifidobacteria. We have recently shown that garlic exhibits antibacterial activity against bifidobacteria. The mechanism by which garlic kills bifidobacteria is yet to be elucidated. This study sought to determine the mechanism of action of garlic clove extract on selected Bifidobacterium species using scanning and transmission electron microscopy...
Probiotics Can Generate FoxP3 T-Cell Responses in the Small Intestine and Simultaneously Inducing CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation in the Large Intestine.
Authors: Smelt MJ, de Haan BJ, Bron PA, van Swam I, Meijerink M, Wells JM, Faas MM, de Vos P.
Abstract: Most studies on probiotics aim to restore intestinal homeostasis to reduce immune-pathology in disease. Of equal importance are studies on how probiotics might prevent or delay disease in healthy individuals. However, knowledge on mechanisms of probiotic actions in healthy individuals is scarce. To gain more insight in how different bacterial strains may modulate the healthy intestinal immune system, we investigated the effect of the food derived bacterial strains L. plantarum WCFS1, L. salivarius UCC118, and...
Authors: Bindels LB, Delzenne NM.
Abstract: Muscle wasting is characterized by a loss of muscle mass and strength, and occurs in several pathological conditions such as cancer, chronic heart failure, chronic infection and malnutrition. Muscle wasting can be caused by inflammation and inappropriate nutritional status. Interestingly, gut microbiota has recently been proposed as an environmental factor involved, among others, in energy sparing from the diet, and in the regulation of host immunity and metabolism. This review presents evidence supporting the...
Effects of probiotics in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Authors: Alokail MS, Sabico S, Al-Saleh Y, Al-Daghri NM, Alkharfy KM, Vanhoutte PM, McTernan PG.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Low grade chronic inflammation is observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Endotoxin derived from gut bacteria may act as a potent inflammatory stimulant. Probiotics, which are believed to contain health promoting live microorganisms, may influence circulating endotoxin levels. Ingestion of live probiotic cultures may alter gut microbiota in a beneficial manner to reduce inflammation; no information is available whether or not they do so in patients with T2DM. Therefore, the aim...
Authors: Miquel S, Martín R, Rossi O, BermÃºdez-Humarán L, Chatel J, Sokol H, Thomas M, Wells J, Langella P.
Abstract: Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically active commensal bacterium as a component of the healthy human microbiota. Changes in the abundance of F. prausnitzii have been linked to dysbiosis in several human disorders. Administration of F. prausnitzii strain...
Effect of the combined probiotics with aflatoxin B1-degrading enzyme on aflatoxin detoxification, broiler production performance and hepatic enzyme gene expression.
Authors: Zuo RY, Chang J, Yin QQ, Wang P, Yang YR, Wang X, Wang GQ, Zheng QH.
Abstract: In order to degrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), AFBl-degrading microbes (probiotics) such as Lactobacillus casei, Bacillus subtilis and Pichia anomala, and the AFBl-degrading enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae were selected and combined to make feed additive. Seventy-five 43-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into 5 groups, 15 broilers for each group. The broilers were given with 5 kinds of diets such as the basal diet, 400 μg/kg AFB1 supplement without feed additive, and 200, 400, 800 μg/kg AFB1...
Authors: Butterworth RF.
Abstract: Systemic inflammation is common in liver failure and its acquisition is a predictor of hepatic encephalopathy severity. New studies provide convincing evidence for a role of neuroinflammation (inflammation of the brain per se) in liver failure; this evidence includes activation of microglia, together with increased synthesis in situ of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF,IL-1β and IL-6. Liver-brain signalling mechanisms in liver failure include: direct effects of systemic proinflammatory molecules, recruitment...
Erratum to: Comparative in vitro inhibition of urinary tract pathogens by single- and multi-strain probiotics.
Authors: Chapman CM, Gibson GR, Todd S, Rowland I.
Authors: Stubbe CE, Valero M.
Abstract: Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten-tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com-mon side effect that...
Authors: Eslamparast T1, Eghtesad S2, Hekmatdoost A3, Poustchi H2.
Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronicliver disease worldwide, both in adults and in children. NAFLD represents aspectrum of liver diseases that range from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitisand cirrhosis. However, NAFLD is more prevalent in overweight and obeseindividuals. Evidences thus far suggest that hepatic triglyceride accumulationis not always derived from obesity; gut microbiota can also play a role in thedevelopment of insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, necroinflammation...
Authors: Zhang QZ, Zhu LP, Cheng L.
Authors: Alanazi AS.
Abstract: Autism and related disorders are increasingly prevalent behavioral syndromes of impaired verbal and nonverbal communication and socialization owing to neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The most recent estimate for the prevalence of autistic disorders is about 1% on a global scale. Etiology of autism is multifactorial and multidimensional that makes therapeutic intervention even harder. Heterogeneity of genetic factors, oxidative stress, autoimmune mechanism, and epigenetic mechanisms complicate the nature of...