Antipathogenic activity of probiotics against Salmonella Typhimurium and Clostridium difficile in anaerobic batch culture systems: is it due to synergies in probiotic mixtures or the specificity of single strains?
Authors: Tejero-Sariñena S, Barlow J, Costabile A, Gibson GR, Rowland I.
Abstract: Probiotics are currently being investigated for prevention of infections caused by enteric pathogens. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of three single probiotics: Lactobacillus casei NCIMB 30185 (PXN 37), Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 30184 (PXN 35), Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 30180 (PXN 25) and a probiotic mixture containing the above strains plus twelve other strains belonging to the Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Lactococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus genera on the survival...
Authors: Kubota T, Shimojo N, Nonaka K, Yamashita M, Ohara O, Igoshi Y, Ozawa N, Nakano T, Morita Y, Inoue Y, Arima T, Chiba K, Nakamura Y, Ikegami S, Masuda K, Suzuki S, Kohno Y.
Abstract: The consumption of probiotics by pregnant and lactating women may prevent the onset of allergic disorders in their children by increasing the concentrations of immunoactive agents such as cytokines in breast milk. Prebiotics such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) increase the number of beneficial organisms such as bifidobacteria. Thus, prebiotics may have an effect similar to that of probiotics. The objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive analysis of mRNA expression in human milk cells...
Authors: Nuzzo G, Gallo C, d'Ippolito G, Cutignano A, Sardo A, Fontana A.
Abstract: Accurate characterization of biomass constituents is a crucial aspect of research in the biotechnological application of natural products. Here we report an efficient, fast and reproducible method for the identification and quantitation of fatty acids and complex lipids (triacylglycerols, glycolipids, phospholipids) in microalgae under investigation for the development of functional health products (probiotics, food ingredients, drugs, etc.) or third generation biofuels. The procedure consists of extraction...
Authors: Dai C, Zheng CQ, Jiang M, Ma XY, Jiang LJ.
Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies...
Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Determinants of Functional Food Consumption in an Adult Population of the Balearic Islands.
Authors: Ozen AE, Bibiloni MD, Pons A, Tur JA.
Abstract: Background/Aims: Studies about functional food (FF) consumption among south Europeans are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess sociodemographic and lifestyle determinants of FF consumption in adult inhabitants of the Balearic Islands. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional, nutritional survey was conducted. The target population consisted of all inhabitants aged 16-65 years living in the Balearic Islands. FFs were selected from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Sociodemographic and...
Interactions between Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides species in co-fermentations are affected by carbon sources, including exopolysaccharides produced by bifidobacteria.
Authors: Rios-Covian D, Arboleya S, Hernandez-Barranco AM, Alvarez-Buylla JR, Ruas-Madiedo P, Gueimonde M, de Los Reyes-Gavilan CG.
Abstract: Coculture of strains from two Bifidobacterium and two Bacteroides species were performed with exopolysaccharides (EPS) previously purified from bifidobacteria, inulin or glucose as carbon sources. Bifidobacterium longum NB667 and Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004 grew in glucose, but showed poor, or no growth, in complex carbohydrates (inulin, EPS E44 and EPS R1) whereas Bacteroides grew well in the four carbon sources tested. In the presence of glucose the growth of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron DSM-2079 was inhibited...
Catabolism of glucose and lactose in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis studied by 13C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.
Authors: González-Rodríguez I, Gaspar P, Sánchez B, Gueimonde M, Margolles A, Neves AR.
Abstract: Bifidobacteria are widely used as probiotics in several commercial products, however to date there is little knowledge about their carbohydrate metabolic pathways. In this work we have studied the metabolism of glucose and lactose in the widely used probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 by in vivo 13C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The metabolism of [1-13C]glucose was characterized in cells grown in glucose as the sole carbon source. Moreover, the metabolism of lactose...
Authors: Kanauchi O, Andoh A, Mitsuyama K.
Abstract: The gastrointestinal tract harbors a tremendous number and variety of commensal microbiota. The intestinal mucosa simultaneously absorbs essential nutrients and protects against detrimental antigens or pathogenic microbiota as the first line of defense. The beneficial interactions between the host and microbiota are key requirements for host health. Although the gut microbiota has been previously studied in the context of inflammatory diseases, it has recently become clear that this microbial environment has...
A potential role of probiotics in colorectal cancer prevention: review of possible mechanisms of action.
Authors: Chong ES.
Abstract: A number of investigations, mainly using in vitro and animal models, have demonstrated a wide range of possible mechanisms, by which probiotics may play a role in colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention. In this context, the most well studied probiotics are certain strains from the genera of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. The reported anti-CRC mechanisms of probiotics encompass intraluminal, systemic, and direct effects on intestinal mucosa. Intraluminal effects detailed in this review include competitive exclusion...
Authors: Correa Franco M, Golowczyc MA, De Antoni GL, Pérez PF, Humen M, Serradell MD.
Abstract: Giardiasis, caused by the protozoan Giardia intestinalis, is one of the most common intestinal diseases worldwide and constitutes an important problem for public health systems of different countries. Kefir is a probiotic beverage obtained through fermentation of milk with "kefir grains"which consisting mainly of bacteria and yeasts that coexist in a complex symbiotic association. In this work, we studied the ability of kefir to protect mice from a G. intestinalis infection, and characterized the host immune...
Synergistic antibacterial efficacies of the combination of bovine lactoferrin or its hydrolysate with probiotic secretion in curbing the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Authors: Chen PW, Jheng TT, Shyu CL, Mao FC.
Abstract: The occurrence of multi-drug resistant or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become an important issue in clinics. This study evaluated a combinatorial treatment approach by using the well-documented antibacterial protein apo-bovine lactoferrin (apo-bLf) or its hydrolysate and specific probiotic supernatants for controlling MRSA infection. Clinical MRSA strains were isolated from different patient specimens. Apo-bLf hydrolysate possessed stronger anti-MRSA activity than complete bLf in that...
Effective survival of immobilized Lactobacillus casei during ripening and heat treatment of probiotic dry-fermented sausages and investigation of the microbial dynamics.
Authors: Sidira M, Karapetsas A, Galanis A, Kanellaki M, Kourkoutas Y.
Abstract: The aim was the assessment of immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat in the production of probiotic dry-fermented sausages and the investigation of the microbial dynamics. For comparison, sausages containing either free L. casei ATCC 393 or no starter culture were also prepared. During ripening, the numbers of lactobacilli exceeded 7logcfu/g, while a drastic decrease was observed in enterobacteria, staphylococci and pseudomonas counts. Microbial diversity was further studied applying a PCR-DGGE protocol....
A Review of the Advancements in Probiotic Delivery: Conventional vs. Non-conventional Formulations for Intestinal Flora Supplementation.
Authors: Govender M, Choonara YE, Kumar P, du Toit LC, van Vuuren S, Pillay V.
Abstract: Probiotic delivery systems are widely used nutraceutical products for the supplementation of natural intestinal flora. These delivery systems vary greatly in effectiveness to exert health benefits for a patient. Probiotic delivery systems can be categorized into conventional, pharmaceutical formulations, and non-conventional, mainly commercial food-based, products. The degree of health benefits provided by these probiotic formulations varies in their ability to deliver viable, functional bacteria in large enough...
Effect of a sub-lethal high pressure homogenization treatment on the fatty acid membrane composition of probiotic lactobacilli.
Authors: Tabanelli G, Patrignani F, Gardini F, Vinderola G, Reinheimer J, Grazia L, Lanciotti R.
Abstract: High Pressure of Homogenization (HPH) has been proposed to be applied directly to lactic acid bacteria cells at sub-lethal levels in order to enhance some functional properties. Since the principal target of HPH are the cell surface envelope structures, the aim of this work was to study the effect of a HPH, applied at 50 MPa, on cell membrane stress responses of already-known functional strains, isolated from Argentinean products. Specifically, the membrane fatty acid composition of cells before and after the...
Authors: Neef A, Sanz Y.
Abstract: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study is to provide an update of probiotic science evolving from classical approaches to the development of next-generation probiotics, parallel to advances in the understanding of the complexity of the gut microbiome and its role in human health.RECENT FINDINGS: The probiotic concept is based on the notion that the gut ecosystem contributes to human physiology and, consequently, its modulation may help to maintain health and reduce disease risk. The understanding of the...
Authors: Pedroso AA, Hurley-Bacon AL, Zedek AS, Kwan TW, Jordan AP, Avellaneda G, Hofacre CL, Oakley BB, Collett SR, Maurer JJ, Lee MD.
Abstract: Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and significant amounts of fecal waste. Increasing use of manure and litter as a more "natural" and affordable source of fertilizer may be contributing to contamination of fruits and vegetables with foodborne pathogens. In addition, human and animal manure have been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil...
Authors: Herbel SR, Vahjen W, Wieler LH, Guenther S.
Abstract: Over the past decades the use of probiotics in food has increased largely due to the manufacturer's interest in placing "healthy" food on the market based on the consumer's ambitions to live healthy. Due to this trend, health benefits of products containing probiotic strains such as lactobacilli are promoted and probiotic strains have been established in many different products with their numbers increasing steadily. Probiotics are used as starter cultures in dairy products such as cheese or yoghurts and in...
Impact of probiotics on colonic microflora in patients with colitis: A prospective double blind randomised crossover study.
Authors: Ahmed J, Reddy BS, Mølbak L, Leser TD, Macfie J.
Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS:: The aim of this study was to investigate the spectrum of colonic microflora in patients with colitis and if this could be altered with one months treatment with synbiotics.METHODS: This was a pilot study in which patients were randomised to either receive a synbiotics preparation for a month and then "crossed over" to receive a placebo, or alternatively to receive the placebo first followed in the second month by synbiotic. Stool samples were collected on entry into the study and then...
Authors: Fontana L, Bermudez-Brito M, Plaza-Diaz J, Muñoz-Quezada S, Gil A.
Novel probiotic-fermented milk with angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides produced by Bifidobacterium bifidum MF 20/5.
Authors: Gonzalez-Gonzalez C, Gibson T, Jauregi P.
Abstract: In previous research, we have demonstrated that Bifidobacterium bifidum MF 20/5 fermented milk possessed stronger angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity than other lactic acid bacteria, including Lactobacillus helveticus DSM 13137, which produces the hypotensive casokinins Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) and Val-Pro-Pro (VPP). The aim of this study is to investigate the ACE-inhibitory peptides released in B. bifidum MF 20/5 fermented milk. The novel ACE-inhibitory peptide LVYPFP (IC50=132Î¼M) is reported...
Authors: Stancu CS, Sanda GM, Deleanu M, Sima AV.
Abstract: SCOPE: Hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and the oxidative stress are among the known risk factors of atherosclerosis. Our aim was to assess the hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of a probiotic mix (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis) in hyperlipidemic hamsters (HL).METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Golden Syrian hamsters developed hyperlipidemia after 21 weeks of fat diet. For the last 5 weeks of experiment, ten HL were treated with the probiotic mix (HLP), ten received water (HL). Ten animals...
Preliminary selection for potential probiotic Bifidobacterium isolated from subjects of different Chinese ethnic groups and evaluation of their fermentation and storage characteristics in bovine milk.
Authors: Liu WJ, Chen YF, Kwok LY, Li MH, Sun T, Sun CL, Wang XN, Dan T, Menghebilige, Zhang HP, Sun TS.
Abstract: A total of 29 strains of Bifidobacterium were isolated from 18 samples of human feces in different ethnic minority regions of China. All isolates were identified as Bifidobacterium longum (9 strains) and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum (20 strains) based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. These strains were preliminarily tested for their suitability to become probiotics by assessing their ability to survive adequately at low pH conditions and their tolerance of different concentrations...
Authors: Ki Y, Kim W, Nam J, Kim D, Lee J, Park D, Jeon H, Ha H, Kim T, Kim D.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus on the percentage volume change of the rectum (PVCR), a crucial factor of prostate movement.METHODS AND MATERIALS: Prostate cancer patients managed with tomotherapy as a radical treatment were enrolled in the study to take a probiotic capsule containing 1.0 — 108 colony-forming units of L acidophilus or a placebo capsule twice daily. Radiation therapy was performed at a dose of 78 Gy in 39 fractions. The PVCR, defined as the difference...
Neonatal colonization of germ-free mice with Bifidobacterium longum prevents allergic sensitization to major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.
Authors: Schwarzer M, Srutkova D, Schabussova I, Hudcovic T, Akgün J, Wiedermann U, Kozakova H.
Abstract: The main goal in reversing the allergy epidemic is the development of effective prophylactic strategies. We investigated the prophylactic effect of neonatal mother-to-offspring mono-colonization with Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 on subsequent allergic sensitization. Adult male and female germ-free (GF) mice were mono-colonized with B. longum, mated and their offspring, as well as age-matched GF controls, were sensitized with the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Furthermore, signaling pathways...
A Lactobacillus casei Shirota probiotic drink reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in patients with spinal cord injuries: a randomised controlled trial.
Authors: Wong S, Jamous A, O
Abstract: Certain probiotics may prevent the development of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD), but their effectiveness depends on both strain and dose. There are few data on nutritional interventions to control AAD/CDAD in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. The present study aimed to assess (1) the efficacy of consuming a commercially produced probiotic containing at least ... 109 live Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) in reducing the incidence of AAD/CDAD,...