Authors: Buda B, Dylus E, Górska-Frączek S, Brzozowska E, Gamian A.
Abstract: Lactobacillus, a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, includes many strains of probiotic microflora. Probiotics, by definition, are living microorganisms that exert beneficial effects on the host organism. The morphology and physiology of the Lactobacillus bacterial genus are described. The structure of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria is discussed. The surface S-layer of Lactobacillus composed of proteins (SLP) with low molecular mass is presented. Cell surface proteins participating in the regulation of...
Authors: Levi JR, Brody RM, McKee-Cole K, Pribitkin E, O'Reilly R.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To review the literature involving complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for pediatric otitis media. Multiple modalities are discussed, including prevention involving breastfeeding, nutrition, and vaccination; symptomatic treatment involving homeopathy, natural health products, and probiotics; manual manipulations involving osteopathy and chiropractics; and traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine. The information presented will assist physicians in advising patients on their decision-making...
Probiotics in colorectal cancer (CRC) with emphasis on mechanisms of actions and current prospectives.
Authors: Kahouli I, Tomaro-Duchesneau C, Prakash S.
Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common form of human cancer. Diverse therapies such as surgery and chemotherapy have shown excellent results in CRC. However, they still have limitations. There is a need to develop new CRC treatment strategies. Probiotic formulations have shown excellent promises in CRC as modest, preventive and early stage therapeutics. This review summarizes the recent development of probiotics in CRC and highlights the importance of the intestinal microbiota balance in CRC, cover...
Omega-3 fatty acid-, micronutrient-, and probiotic-enriched nutrition helps body weight stabilization in head and neck cancer cachexia.
Authors: Yeh KY, Wang HM, Chang JW, Huang JS, Lai CH, Lan YJ, Wu TH, Chang PH, Wang H, Wu CJ, Hsia S, Wang CH.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether an oral nutritional supplement enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, micronutrients, and probiotics affected body weight (BW) changes, serum albumin and prealbumin levels in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) cachexia.STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-eight HNC patients were randomly assigned to receive either an Ethanwell/Ethanzyme (EE) regimen enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, micronutrients, and probiotics, or control (Isocal) for a 3-month period. Analysis of covariance was used to examine...
Fecal excretion of Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 and changes in fecal microbiota after eight weeks of oral supplementation with encapsulated probiotic.
Authors: Charbonneau D, Gibb RD, Quigley EM.
Abstract: Certain randomized, placebo-controlled trials of oral supplementation with B. infantis 35624 have demonstrated the amelioration of symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Potential GI colonization by B. infantis 35624 or effects of supplementation on resident GI microbiota may pertain to these clinical observations. In this study, fecal excretion of B. infantis 35624 before, during and after 8 weeks of daily treatment was compared in subjects with IBS who received either the encapsulated oral supplement (n = 39)...
Effect of a probiotic preparation (VSL#3) in critically ill patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Pilot Study).
Authors: Ebrahimi-Mameghani M1, Sanaie S2, Mahmoodpoor A3, Hamishehkar H4.
Abstract: Objective : Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a major contributing factor in diseases pathophysiology in critically ill patients. Oxidative stress usually occurs in critical illnesses, specifically during sepsis, and organ dysfunction. The anti-oxidative properties of probiotics may serve as a defense in intestine and overcome various oxidative stresses. The aim of this trial was to determine the effect of probiotics on inflammation, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in critically ill patients. Methodology...
Authors: Culligan EP, Sleator RD, Marchesi JR, Hill C.
Abstract: Metagenomics provides a means of assessing the total genetic pool of all the microbes in a particular environment, in a culture-independent manner. It has revealed unprecedented diversity in microbial community composition, which is further reflected in the encoded functional diversity of the genomes, a large proportion of which consists of novel genes. Herein, we review both sequence-based and functional metagenomic methods to uncover novel genes and outline some of the associated problems of each type of approach,...
Fitness improvement of mass-reared sterile males of Ceratitis capitata (Vienna 8 strain) (Diptera: Tephritidae) after gut enrichment with probiotics.
Authors: Hamden H, Guerfali MM, Fadhl S, Saidi M, Chevrier C.
Abstract: Successful mass rearing is crucial for sterile insect technique programs. It has been shown that the sterilizing process using gammaradiation results in damage to midgut tissue, cellular organelles, and gut microbiota of flies. This can be responsible for the inferiority of sterile males compared with wild males. A bacteria-enhanced diet could contribute to the improvement of the fly's fitness. We investigated ways of increasing the competitiveness of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)...
[Prevention of post-operative recurrence in Crohn's disease: a critical review of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses of different therapeutic strategies].
Authors: Margagnoni G, Clemente V, Aratari A, FascÃ¬ Spurio F, De Gregorio AM, Spagnolo A, Koch M, Papi C.
Abstract: Surgery is an almost inevitable event in Crohn's disease but is not curative; post-operative recurrence follows a sequential and predictable course. Prevention of post-operative recurrence in Crohn's disease is therefore a relevant problem in the management of the disease. Several drugs have been evaluated to decrease the risk of recurrence: these include mesalazine, antibiotics, probiotics, budesonide, thiopurines and biologic agents. This review focuses on the randomised controlled trials and meta-analyses...
[The effects of early enteral nutrition with addition of probiotics on the prognosis of patients suffering from severe acute pancreatitis].
Authors: Cui LH, Wang XH, Peng LH, Yu L, Yang YS.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the curative effect of early enteral nutrition (EN) supplemented with probiotics (bifidobacterium) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (ASP).METHODS: Seventy SAP cases admitted from January 2005 to October 2012 were randomly assigned into parenteral nutrition (PN) group (n=22), EN group (n=25) and bifidobacterium added EN (P+EN) group (n=23). In P+EN group, patients were given their nutrition the same as that of EN, and also probiotics (bifidobacterium, 4 capsules every 12 hours,...
Authors: Hyun HS, Paik KH, Cho HY.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are important protein-bound uremic retention solutes whose levels can be partially reduced by renal replacement therapy. These solutes originate from intestinal bacterial protein fermentation and are associated with cardiovascular outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. The aims of this study were to investigate the levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate as well as the effect of probiotics on reducing the levels of uremic toxins in pediatric patients...
Role of probiotics and nutrition in the management of chronic inflammatory bowel disease in children.
Authors: Quah SH.
Lactobacillus salivarius strain FDB89 induced longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans by dietary restriction.
Authors: Zhao Y, Zhao L, Zheng X, Fu T, Guo H, Ren F.
Abstract: In this study, we utilized the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to assess potential life-expanding effect of Lactobacillus salivarius strain FDB89 (FDB89) isolated from feces of centenarians in Bama County (Guangxi, China). This study showed that feeding FDB89 extended the mean life span in C. elegans by up to 11.9% compared to that of control nematodes. The reduced reproductive capacities, pharyngeal pumping rate, growth, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and XTT reduction capacity were also...
Authors: Li K, Zhang CF, Xia YH, Li ZJ, Han Y.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of probiotics on the treatment outcomes of ulcerative colitis, and explore its possible mechanism.METHODS: According to the table of random number, 60 ulcerative colitis patients in our hospital were enrolled prospectively and divided into 3 groups: Golden Bifid group, Changmei group, combination group(Golden+ Changmei). Patients in Golden Bifid group received Golden Bifid 2.0 g, bid, those in Changmei group received Changmei 1.0 g, tid, and those in combination group received...
Effect of probiotics lactobacillus and bifidobacterium on gut-derived lipopolysaccharides and inflammatory cytokines: an in vitro study using a human colonic microbiota model.
Authors: Rodes L, Khan A, Paul A, Coussa-Charley M, Marinescu D, Tomaro-Duchesneau C, Shao W, Kahouli I, Prakash S.
Abstract: Gut-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are critical to the development and progression of chronic low-grade inflammation and metabolic diseases. In this study, the effects of probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium on gut-derived lipopolysaccharide and inflammatory cytokine concentrations were evaluated using a human colonic microbiota model. Lactobacillus reuteri, L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, Bifidobacterium animalis, B. bifidum, B. longum, and B. longum subsp. infantis were identified from the literature...
Authors: Siempos II, Ntaidou TK.
Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 on intestinal ultrastructure modulation and mucosal immunity development mechanism in broiler chickens.
Authors: Rajput IR, Li LY, Xin X, Wu BB, Juan ZL, Cui ZW, Yu DY, Li WF.
Abstract: The recent ban on the use of antibiotics as a feed additive has led to the search for alternative sources of antibiotics in the feed industry. Presently, probiotics are considered as a potential substitute for antibiotic as a live biotherapeutic agent to improve animal health and performance. Accordingly, study was focused on evaluating the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) and Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs) on ultrastructure modulation and mucosal immunity development in broiler chickens. A total of three...
In vitro assessment of functional properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from faecal microbiota of healthy dogs for potential use as probiotics.
Authors: Silva BC, Jung LR, Sandes SH, Alvim LB, Bomfim MR, Nicoli JR, Neumann E, Nunes AC.
Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified in the faeces of Chinese Crested and Yorkshire terrier pups and their probiotic features were investigated in vitro. Thirty seven isolates were identified as Lactobacillus or Enterococcus. Out of these isolates, 31 were lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and belonged to the species Lactobacillus reuteri (16/37; 43.3%), Lactobacillus animalis (7/37; 18.9%), Lactobacillus acidophilus (3/37; 8.1%), Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (2/37; 5.4%), Lactobacillus murinus (2/37;...
Authors: Li DY, Yang M, Edwards S, Ye SQ.
Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major clinical consequence for people with obesity and metabolic syndrome and is also associated with enteral and parenteral nutrition. Early studies suggested that altered gut microbiota might contribute to obesity by affecting energy harvest from the diet and energy storage in the host. Recent evidence in humans as well as in animal models has linked gut microbiota to the development of NAFLD through the gut-liver axis. With bacterial overgrowth and increased intestinal...
Authors: Viladomiu M, Hontecillas R, Yuan L, Lu P, Bassaganya-Riera J.
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a debilitating and widespread immune-mediated illness characterized by excessive inflammatory and effector mucosal responses leading to tissue destruction at the gastrointestinal tract. Interactions among the immune system, the commensal microbiota and the host genotype are thought to underlie the pathogenesis of IBD. However, the precise etiology of IBD remains unknown. Diet-induced changes in the composition of the gut microbiome can modulate the induction of regulatory...
Authors: Martin CR.
Association of a probiotic to a Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen does not increase efficacy or decreases the adverse effects of the treatment: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Authors: Navarro-Rodriguez T, Silva FM, Barbuti RC, Mattar R, Moraes-Filho JP, de Oliveira MN, Bogsan CS, Chinzon D, Eisig JN.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The treatment for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is complex; full effectiveness is rarely achieved and it has many adverse effects. In developing countries, increased resistance to antibiotics and its cost make eradication more difficult. Probiotics can reduce adverse effects and improve the infection treatment efficacy.If the first-line therapy fails a second-line treatment using tetracycline, furazolidone and proton-pump inhibitors has been effective and low cost in Brazil;...
Authors: Tripathi P, Beaussart A, Alsteens D, Dupres V, Claes I, von Ossowski I, de Vos WM, Palva A, Lebeer S, Vanderleyden J, Dufrêne YF.
Abstract: Knowledge of the mechanisms by which bacterial pili adhere to host cells and withstand external forces is critical to our understanding of their functional roles and offers exciting avenues in biomedicine for controlling the adhesion of bacterial pathogens and probiotics. While much progress has been made in the nanoscale characterization of pili from Gram-negative bacteria, the adhesive and mechanical properties of Gram-positive bacterial pili remain largely unknown. Here, we use single-molecule atomic force...
Authors: Céspedes M, Cárdenas P, Staffolani M, Ciappini MC, Vinderola G.
Abstract: The increase in vegetarianism as dietary habit and the increased allergy episodes against dairy proteins fuel the demand for probiotics in nondairy products. Lactose intolerance and the cholesterol content of dairy products can also be considered two additional reasons why some consumers are looking for probiotics in other foods. We aimed at determining cell viability in nondairy drinks and resistance to simulated gastric digestion of commercial probiotic lactobacilli commonly used in dairy products. Lactobacillus...
Authors: Dennehy PH.
Abstract: Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe diarrhea disease in infants and young children worldwide and continues to have a major global impact on childhood morbidity and mortality. No antiviral therapy is available. Treatment of rotavirus gastroenteritis is limited to rehydration therapy. Recently, therapies, such as probiotics, have been developed as adjuncts to rehydration therapy. Two effective rotavirus vaccines are available and recommended for routine immunization of all infants. These vaccines...