Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 supplementation affects intestinal immune-associated gene expression in post-weaning piglets.
Authors: Siepert B, Reinhardt N, Kreuzer S, Bondzio A, Twardziok S, Brockmann G, Nöckler K, Szabó I, Janczyk P, Pieper R, Tedin K.
Abstract: In a Salmonella challenge study of weaned piglets supplemented with the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (SF68), we observed a delayed, post-infection proliferative response of purified blood mononuclear cell fractions towards Salmonella antigens. In order to clarify this observation, we examined the patterns of immune-associated gene expression in long-term feeding trials of both pre- and post-weaning piglets. Piglets supplemented with E. faecium NCIMB 10415 showed a post-weaning dysregulation in...
Safety and Immunomodulatory Effects of Three Probiotic Strains Isolated from the Feces of Breast-Fed Infants in Healthy Adults: SETOPROB Study.
Authors: Plaza-Diaz J, Gomez-Llorente C, Campaña-Martin L, Matencio E, Ortuño I, Martínez-Silla R, Gomez-Gallego C, Periago MJ, Ros G, Chenoll E, Genovés S, Casinos B, Silva A, Corella D, Portolés O, Romero F, Ramón D, Perez de la Cruz A, Gil A, Fontana L.
Abstract: We previously described the isolation and characterization of three probiotic strains from the feces of exclusively breast-fed newborn infants: Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. These strains were shown to adhere to intestinal mucus in vitro, to be sensitive to antibiotics and to resist biliary salts and low pH. In the present study, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 100 healthy volunteers in three...
Authors: Ma YY, Li L, Yu CH, Shen Z, Chen LH, Li YM.
Abstract: AIM: To investigate the relationship between the gut-liver axis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of probiotic therapy in NAFLD.METHODS: We searched PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and Chinese Biomedicine Database for all relevant randomized controlled trials on probiotics in patients with NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). A statistical analysis was performed using RevMan 5.0 software.RESULTS: Four randomized...
Authors: Chandra S, Thapa R, Marur S, Jani N.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to validate a clinical prediction scale for hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).METHODS:: The study included a consecutive cohort of patients admitted to the adult medical service over a period of 17 months (June 2011 to October 2012). The clinical prediction scale comprised of new-onset loose stools (5 points), length of hospital stay >7days (4 points), aged 65 years or older (3 points), resides in long-term care facility (2 points), broad spectrum antibiotics...
Probiotics-pathogen interactions elicit differential regulation of cutaneous immune responses in epidermal cells of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.
Authors: Lazado CC, Caipang CM.
Abstract: Little is known on the cutaneous immune responses during probiotics-pathogen interactions in fish. Thus, this study employed Atlantic cod primary epidermal (EP) cell cultures as a model to understand this interaction. The probiotics-pathogen interactions in the EP cell cultures were elucidated using Vibrio anguillarum 2133 (VA) as the pathogen and two host-derived bacteria (GP21 and GP12) as the probiotics. There was a regional size difference on the EP cells; i.e., EP cells from the dorsal region were significantly...
Analysis for microbial ecology between Helicobacter pylori and gastric microbiota of Mongolian gerbil.
Authors: Zaman C, Osaki T, Hanawa T, Yonezawa H, Kurata S, Kamiya S.
Abstract: Animal models are essential for in vivo analysis of Helicobacter-related diseases. Mongolian gerbils are frequently used to study Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis and its consequences. The presence of some gastric microbiota with a suppressive effect on H. pylori suggests inhibitory gastric bacteria against H. pylori infection. The aim of the present study was to analyze microbial ecology between H. pylori and gastric microbioita of Mongolian gerbil. In the present study, the gastric mucosa samples of H....
Authors: Chrysohoou C, Stefanadis C.
Abstract: Longevity is a very complex phenomenon, because many environmental, behavioral, socio-demographic and dietary factors influence the physiological pathways of aging and life-expectancy. Nutrition has been recognized to have an important impact on overall mortality and morbidity; and its role in extending life expectancy has been the object of extensive scientific research. This paper reviews the pathophysiological mechanisms that potentially link aging with diet and the scientific evidence supporting the anti-aging...
A randomized double-blind controlled trial: Impact of probiotics on diarrhea in patients treated with pelvic radiation.
Authors: Demers M, Dagnault A, Desjardins J.
Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Radical radiation therapy is commonly used for treatment of pelvic cancer. Up to 80% of patients receiving radiotherapy will develop acute radiation induced diarrhea. The primary aim of this randomized double blind controlled trial is to evaluate the effect of the probiotic Bifilact® on moderate and severe treatment-induced diarrhea during pelvic radiation.METHODS: Patients with pelvic cancers were treated between 2006 and 2010 at LHôtel-Dieu de Québec, University Health Center. Some...
Genotoxicity assessment of multispecies probiotics using reverse mutation, Mammalian chromosomal aberration, and rodent micronucleus tests.
Authors: Chiu YJ, Nam MK, Tsai YT, Huang CC, Tsai CC.
Abstract: Genotoxicity assessment is carried out on freeze dried powder of cultured probiotics containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus LCR177, Bifidobacterium adolescentis BA286, and Pediococcus acidilactici PA318. Ames tests, in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration assay, and micronucleus tests in mouse peripheral blood are performed. For 5 strains of Salmonella Typhimurium, the Ames tests show no increased reverse mutation upon exposure to the test substance. In CHO cells, the frequency of chromosome aberration does not...
Administration of Bacillus subtilis strains in the rearing water enhances the water quality, growth performance, immune response, and resistance against Vibrio harveyi infection in juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.
Authors: Zokaeifar H, Babaei N, Saad CR, Kamarudin MS, Sijam K, Balcazar JL.
Abstract: In this study, vegetative cell suspensions of two Bacillus subtilis strains, L10 and G1 in equal proportions, was administered at two different doses 105 (BM5) and 108 (BM8) CFU ml-1 in the rearing water of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) for eight weeks. Both probiotic groups showed a significant reduction of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate ions under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In comparison to untreated control group, final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR) and digestive...
Authors: Klein GL, Petschow BW, Shaw AL, Weaver E.
Abstract: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome characterized by skeletal muscle and adipose tissue loss and is frequently associated with emaciation, anorexia, systemic inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction. Lack of a clear understanding of the cause of cancer cachexia has impeded progress in identifying effective therapeutic agents. This review summarizes recent publications on the role of gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota, and inflammation in the etiology of cancer cachexia and new...
Effects of probiotics supplementation on gastrointestinal permeability, inflammation and exercise performance in the heat.
Authors: Shing CM, Peake JM, Lim CL, Briskey D, Walsh NP, Fortes MB, Ahuja KD, Vitetta L.
Abstract: PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of multi-strain probiotics supplementation on gastrointestinal permeability, systemic markers of inflammation and running performance when exercising in the heat.METHODS: Ten male runners were randomized to 4Â weeks of daily supplementation with a probiotics capsule (45 billion CFU of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus strains) or placebo, separated by a washout period (double-blind, cross-over trial). After each treatment, the runners exercised...
Characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CRL 1584 isolated from a Lithobates catesbeianus hatchery.
Authors: Pasteris SE, Vera Pingitore E, Ale CE, Nader-Macías ME.
Abstract: Lactococcus lactis CRL 1584 isolated from a Lithobates catesbeianus hatchery inhibits the growth of Citrobacter freundii (a bullfrog pathogen) and Listeria monocytogenes by a synergistic effect between lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide and a bacteriocin-like molecule. The chemical characterization of the bacteriocin in cell-free supernatants indicates that it has a proteinaceous nature. Hexadecane and ethyl acetate did not modify the bacteriocin activity, while 10 and 20 % (v/v) chloroform decreased the activity...
Ability of an orally administered lactobacilli preparation to improve the quality of the neovaginal microflora in male to female transsexual women.
Authors: Kaufmann U, Domig KJ, Lippitsch CI, Kraler M, Marschalek J, Kneifel W, Kiss H, Petricevic L.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Lactobacilli have been found in the neovagina of very low numbers of transsexual women. We undertook this study to determine whether an orally administered preparation of four lactobacilli strains exerts some measurable effect on the neovaginal microflora of female transsexuals.STUDY DESIGN: 60 male to female transsexual women with penile linked neovagina were randomised into two groups. Women in the intervention group (n=33) received oral probiotic capsules and women in the control group (n=27) placebo...
The intricate association between gut microbiota and development of Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3 diabetes.
Authors: Bekkering P, Jafri I, van Overveld FJ, Rijkers GT.
Abstract: It has been proposed that changes in the composition of gut microbiota contribute to the development of diabetes Types 1, 2 and 3 (the latter known as Alzheimer's disease). The onset of these diseases is affected by complex interactions of genetic and several environmental factors. Alterations in gut microbiota in combination with specific diets can result in increased intestinal permeability leading via a continuous state of low-grade inflammation to the development of insulin resistance. Since a change in...
Authors: Tan H, Deng Q, Cao L.
Abstract: To isolate actinobacteria from ruminant feces and elucidate their correlations with ruminants, the actinobacterial community in sheep (Ovis aries) and cattle (Bos taurus) feces was determined by cultivation and clone library methods. Most of actinobacteria isolated belonged to Streptomyces, Amycolatopsis, Micromonospora, and Cellulosimicrobium genera. The strains showed above 99 % similarity with the type strains, respectively. All the strains isolated could grow on media containing pectin, cellulose, or xylan...
Mechanisms of Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria Strains as Potential Probiotics with Their bsh Gene Analysis.
Authors: Oner O, Aslim B, Aydaş SB.
Abstract: The bile salt hydrolase (BSH) enzyme activities of human-derived lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria were evaluated. The highest enzyme activity was identified as 1.76 ± 0.23 U/mg protein for Bifidobacterium breve A26 and 1.42 ± 0.11 U/mg protein for Lactobacillus plantarum LA3. The bile salt deconjugation ability of the 6 isolates representing the highest BSH enzyme activity was calculated as the release of cholic acid and was between the range of 2.03 ± 0.22 and 1.05 ± 0.25 mM. The strains with high...
Toxicity of bioactive and probiotic marine bacteria and their secondary metabolites using Artemia sp and Caenorhabditis elegans as eukaryotic model organisms.
Authors: Neu AK, Månsson M, Gram L, Prol-García MJ.
Abstract: We have previously reported that some strains belonging to the marine Actinobacteria class, Pseudoalteromonas genus, Roseobacter clade, and Photobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families produce both antibacterial and antivirulence compounds, and these organisms are interesting from an applied point of view as fish probiotics or as a source of pharmaceutical compounds. The application of either organisms or compounds requires that they do not cause any side effects such as toxicity in eukaryotic organisms. The...
Authors: Quigley EM, Monsour HP.
Abstract: While a central role for the microbiota in the precipitation of infectious and non-infectious complications of liver disease has been long established, evidence for a more fundamental role in the etiology of several liver diseases continues to accumulate. However, though progress is rapidly occurring in this area, the definitive delineation of the precise relevance of changes in the microbiota to various forms and stages of liver disease is still far from complete. While high quality clinical evidence supports...
Authors: Heinritz SN, Mosenthin R, Weiss E.
Abstract: The human intestinal microbial ecosystem plays an important role in maintaining health. A multitude of diseases including diarrhoea, gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders, such as necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) of neonates, and obesity are linked to microbial composition and metabolic activity. Therefore, research on possible dietary strategies influencing microbial composition and activity, both preventive and curative, is being accomplished. Interest has focused on pre- and probiotics that stimulate the...
Authors: Hoffmann DE, Fraser CM, Palumbo FB, Ravel J, Rothenberg K, Rowthorn V, Schwartz J.
Lack of correlation between in vitro antibiosis and in vivo protection against enteropathogenic bacteria by probiotic lactobacilli.
Authors: Bujalance C, Jiménez-Valera M, Moreno E, Ruiz-López MD, Lasserrot A, Ruiz-Bravo A.
Abstract: Increased resistance to infection is one of the beneficial effects attributed to probiotic microorganisms. This effect may be due to several mechanisms: production of inhibitory substances, blocking of adhesion sites on the intestinal surface, competition for nutrients and stimulation of mucosal and systemic immunity. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of probiotic lactobacilli. The agar spot test was used to show that twenty Lactobacillus...
Isolation and characterization of broad spectrum bacteriophages lytic to Vibrio harveyi from shrimp farms of Kerala, India.
Authors: Surekhamol IS, Varghese S, Deepa GD, Pai SS, Sreelakshmi B, Bright Singh IS.
Abstract: Out of 33 phages isolated from various shrimp farms in Kerala, India, six were segregated to have broad spectrum lytic efficiency towards 87 isolates of V. harveyi with cross infecting potential to a few other important aquaculture pathogens. They were further tested on beneficial aquaculture microorganisms such as probiotics and nitrifying bacterial consortia and proved to be non-infective. Morphological characterization by TEM and molecular characterization by RAPD and SDS-PAGE proved them distinct and positioned...
Prebiotic feeding elevates central brain derived neurotrophic factor, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits and d-serine.
Authors: Savignac HM, Corona G, Mills H, Chen L, Spencer JP, Tzortzis G, Burnet PW.
Abstract: The influence of the gut microbiota on brain chemistry has been convincingly demonstrated in rodents. In the absence of gut bacteria, the central expression of brain derived neurotropic factor, (BDNF), and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits are reduced, whereas, oral probiotics increase brain BDNF, and impart significant anxiolytic effects. We tested whether prebiotic compounds, which increase intrinsic enteric microbiota, also affected brain BDNF and NMDARs. In addition, we examined whether plasma...
Lactobacillus plantarum LG42 isolated from gajami sik-hae decreases body and fat pad weights in diet-induced obese mice.
Authors: Park JE, Oh SH, Cha YS.
Abstract: AIMS: This study investigated the antiobesity effect of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum LG42) isolated from gajami sik-hae.METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups (n = 10); NDC (normal diet & DW), HDC (high-fat diet & DW), LGLAB (high-fat diet & Lactobacillus plantarum LG42, 1 — 107 CFU per mouse), HGLAB (high-fat diet & L. plantarum LG42, 1 — 109 CFU per mouse). After 12 weeks, GLAB supplemented groups showed lower body weight, with...