Authors: Jackson DJ1, Hartert TV, Martinez FD, Weiss ST, Fahy JV.
Abstract: Asthma is a common disease with enormous public health costs, and its primary prevention is an ambitious and important goal. Understanding of how host and environmental factors interact to cause asthma is incomplete, but persistent questions about mechanisms should not stop clinical research efforts aimed at reducing the prevalence of childhood asthma. Achieving the goal of primary prevention of asthma will involve integrated and parallel sets of research activities in which mechanism-oriented studies of asthma...
[Nutrition and IBD-Consensus of the Austrian Working Group of IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Diseases) of the Ã–GGH].
Authors: Fuchssteiner H1, Nigl K2, Mayer A3, Kristensen B4, Platzer R5, Brunner B5, WeiÃŸ I6, Haas T7, Benedikt M8, Gröchenig HP9, Eisenberger A10, Hillebrand P6, Reinisch W11, Vogelsang H11.
Abstract: This is a consensus of the Austrian working group of IBD (inflammatory bowel diseases) of the Ã–GGH on nutrition in IBD. Malnutrition should be assessed in case of IBD (in 20â€Š-â€Š70â€Š% of Crohn's patients) and weight loss(>â€Š5â€Š% within 3 months) or nutritional deficiencies or after extensive bowel resection and afterwards also treated. Malnutrition should be treated with medical therapy of IBD and also adequate - as far as possible - with oral nutritional therapy particularly...
In ovo inoculation of chicken embryos with probiotic bacteria and its effect on posthatch Salmonella susceptibility.
Authors: de Oliveira JE1, van der Hoeven-Hangoor E, van de Linde IB, Montijn RC, van der Vossen JM.
Abstract: The feasibility of establishing probiotic bacteria in the intestine of broiler chickens by in ovo inoculation was investigated, followed by verifying possible subsequent protection against Salmonella Enteriditis infection. In a first study, 7 commercially available probiotics were screened for compatibility with in ovo inoculation. Two of these probiotics, one being a Enterococcus faecium and the other a Bacillus subtilis, were selected for colonizing the chick gut without compromising hatchability. In a second...
Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on production performance, immune characteristics, antioxidant status, and intestinal microflora of bursin-immunized broilers.
Authors: Shen X1, Yi D, Ni X, Zeng D, Jing B, Lei M, Bian Z, Zeng Y, Li T, Xin J.
Abstract: Examples of probiotics that can promote host health by improving its intestinal microbial balance and intestinal immunity belong to the genus Lactobacillus. Bursin (BS) is a peptide isolated from the bursa of Fabricius for use as an adjuvant for a variety of immunogens. To investigate the synergistic effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) dietary supplementation and BS immunization on production performance, immune characteristics, antioxidant status, and intestinal microflora in broilers, we randomly allocated...
Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.
Authors: Liévin-Le Moal V1, Servin AL.
Abstract: SUMMARY A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive...
Authors: [No authors listed]
Authors: Klemashevich C1, Wu C2, Howsmon D1, Alaniz RC3, Lee K2, Jayaraman A4.
Abstract: The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in a wide range of functions and whole body homeostasis. Recent advances have linked microbiota dysbiosis to conditions ranging from Crohn's disease to cancer. The restoration or strengthening of the intestinal microbiota through diet-based approaches such as probiotics and prebiotics has been proposed for combating the onset or progression of these diseases. In this review, we highlight the importance of postbiotics for the manipulation of the intestinal microbiota,...
Influence of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis against group B Streptococcus on the early newborn gut composition and evaluation of the anti-Streptococcus activity of Bifidobacterium strains.
Authors: Aloisio I1, Mazzola G, Corvaglia LT, Tonti G, Faldella G, Biavati B, Di Gioia D.
Abstract: Several factors are known to influence the early colonization of the gut in newborns. Among them, the use of antibiotics on the mother during labor, referred to as intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP), has scarcely been investigated, although this practice is routinely used in group B Streptococcus (GBS)-positive women. This work is therefore aimed at verifying whether IAP can influence the main microbial groups of the newborn gut microbiota at an early stage of microbial establishment. Fifty-two newborns...
Treating infant colic with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri: double blind, placebo controlled randomised trial.
Authors: Sung V1, Hiscock H, Tang ML, Mensah FK, Nation ML, Satzke C, Heine RG, Stock A, Barr RG, Wake M.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 reduces crying or fussing in a broad community based sample of breastfed infants and formula fed infants with colic aged less than 3 months.DESIGN: Double blind, placebo controlled randomised trial.SETTING: Community based sample (primary and secondary level care centres) in Melbourne, Australia.PARTICIPANTS: 167 breastfed infants or formula fed infants aged less than 3 months meeting Wessel's criteria for crying or fussing: 85 were...
Authors: Bennett WE Jr.
Dietary supplementation with lactobacilli improves emergency granulopoiesis in protein-malnourished mice and enhances respiratory innate immune response.
Authors: Herrera M1, Salva S1, Villena J1, Barbieri N1, Marranzino G2, Alvarez S3.
Abstract: This work studied the effect of protein malnutrition on the hemato-immune response to the respiratory challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae and evaluated whether the dietary recovery with a probiotic strain has a beneficial effect in that response. Three important conclusions can be inferred from the results presented in this work: a) protein-malnutrition significantly impairs the emergency myelopoiesis induced by the generation of the innate immune response against pneumococcal infection; b) repletion of...
Authors: Parker R.
Abstract: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a gastrointestinal emergency that leads to inflammation and intestinal necrosis. Although probiotics can decrease the incidence of NEC, consistent recommendations for probiotic administration to very low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates are lacking. Here, the best available evidence is reviewed and a practice guideline for probiotic administrations to VLBW neonates is described. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE, and the strength of evidence was classified...
Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.
Authors: Blana VA, Grounta A, Tassou CC, Nychas GJ, Panagou EZ.
Abstract: The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermentd table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined...
Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces as potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages.
Authors: Rubio R, Jofré A, Martín B, Aymerich T, Garriga M.
Abstract: A total of 109 lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces were identified by partial 16S rRNA, cpn60 and/or pheS sequencing. Lactobacillus was the most prevalent genus, representing 48% of the isolates followed by Enterococcus (38%). Lactobacillus gasseri (21%) and Enterococcus faecalis (38%) were the main species detected. A further selection of potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages focused on Lactobacillus as the most technologically relevant genus in this type of product. Lactobacilli...
European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition/European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases Evidence-based Guidelines for the Management of Acute Gastroenteritis in Children in Europe: Update 2014.
Authors: Guarino A1, Ashkenazi S, Gendrel D, Vecchio AL, Shamir R, Szajewska H.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES:: These guidelines update and extend evidence-based indications for the management of children with acute gastroenteritis in Europe.METHODS:: The guideline development group formulated questions, identified data, and formulated recommendations. The latter were graded with the Muir-Gray system and, in parallel, with the GRADE system.RESULTS:: Gastroenteritis severity is linked to etiology, and rotavirus is the most severe infectious agent and is frequently associated with dehydration. Dehydration reflects...
Authors: Tursi A.
Abstract: Acute diverticulitis of the colon represents a significant burden for national health systems, in terms of direct and indirect costs. Although current guidelines recommend use of antibiotics for the outpatient treatment of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis, evidence for this is still lacking. Hence, significant effort is now being made to identify the appropriate therapeutic approach to treat and prevent relapses of diverticulitis. Outpatient treatment has been identified as a safe and effective therapeutic...
Authors: Tursi A.
Abstract: Introduction: Diverticular disease (DD) of the colon is a widespread disease, which shows worldwide increasing incidence and represents a significant burden for National Health Systems. The current guidelines claim that symptomatic uncomplicated DD (SUDD) has to be treated with spasmolithics and high-fiber diet, whereas both uncomplicated and complicated acute diverticulitis has to be treated with antibiotics. However, new physiopathological knowledge suggests that further treatment may be promising. Areas covered:...
Use of probiotics in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Authors: Gou S, Yang Z, Liu T, Wu H, Wang C.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Necrotic tissue infection can worsen the prognosis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and probiotics have been shown to be beneficial in reducing the infection rate in animal experiments and primary clinical trials. However, the results of multicenter randomized clinical trials have been contradictory. The aim of this study was to systematically review and quantitatively analyze all randomized controlled trials with regard to important outcomes in patients with predicted SAP who received probiotics.METHODS:...
Authors: Comito D, Cascio A, Romano C.
Abstract: Gut microbiota plays a significant role in human health and energy balance, and provides protection against disease states. An altered balance between microbiota and its host (dysbiosis) would appear to contribute to the development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Crohn's Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC). CD and UC are chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that occur in genetically susceptible individuals. Several genes of susceptibility are involved in inappropriate activation...
An in vitro study of the effect of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics on the elderly faecal microbiota.
Authors: Likotrafiti E1, Tuohy KM2, Gibson GR3, Rastall RA4.
Abstract: The use of dietary intervention in the elderly in order to beneficially modulate their gut microbiota has not been extensively studied. The influence of two probiotics (Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus fermentum) and two prebiotics [isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) and short-chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS)], individually and in synbiotic combinations (B. longum with IMO, L. fermentum with FOS) on the gut microbiota of elderly individuals was investigated using faecal batch cultures and three-stage continuous...
Effects of Lactobacillus casei supplementation on disease activity and inflammatory cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.
Authors: Alipour B1, Homayouni-Rad A, Vaghef-Mehrabany E, Sharif SK, Vaghef-Mehrabany L, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Nakhjavani MR, Mohtadi-Nia J.
Abstract: AIM: The present study aimed at investigating the effects of Lactobacillus casei 01 supplementation on symptoms and inflammatory biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women.METHOD: In this randomized double-blind clinical trial, female patients with established RA for more than 1Â year, 20-80Â years of age and body mass index (BMI) lower than 40, who followed stable medication for 3Â months prior to the supplementation, were randomly allocated to receive either one capsule containing 108 colony forming...
Strategies for the evaluation and selection of potential vaginal probiotics from human sources: an exemplary study.
Authors: Domig KJ1, Kiss H2, Petricevic L2, Viernstein H3, Unger F3, Kneifel W1.
Abstract: During the last years, the application of probiotics in gynaecological clinical practice has gained increasing relevance regarding therapy and prevention. This trend has also provoked the need for having tailored pharmaceutical preparations containing powerful microbial strains with defined properties. For the development of such preparations, several factors and criteria have to be considered, thereby not only focusing on identity and safety aspects as well as individual properties of the bacterial strains,...
Authors: Erdman SE1, Poutahidis T2.
Abstract: Radiant skin and hair are universal indicators of good health. It was recently shown that feeding of probiotic bacteria to aged mice rapidly induced youthful vitality characterised by thick lustrous skin and hair, and enhanced reproductive fitness, not seen in untreated controls. Probiotic-treated animals displayed integrated immune and hypothalamic-pituitary outputs that were isolated mechanistically to microbe-induced anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 and neuropeptide hormone oxytocin. In this way, probiotic...
Authors: Britton RA1, Irwin R, Quach D, Schaefer L, Zhang J, Lee T, Parameswaran N, McCabe LR.
Abstract: Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis that is associated with bone inflammation and resorption. Half of women over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporosis related fracture in their lifetime, thus novel therapies are needed to combat post-menopausal bone loss. Recent studies suggest an important role for gut-bone signaling pathways and the microbiota in regulating bone health. Given that the bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (L. reuteri) secretes beneficial immunomodulatory...
Authors: Walsh CJ1, Guinane CM2, O'Toole PW3, Cotter PD4.
Abstract: The human gut microbiota comprises approximately 100 trillion microbial cells and has a significant effect on many aspects of human physiology including metabolism, nutrient absorption and immune function. Disruption of this population has been implicated in many conditions and diseases, including examples such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer that are highlighted in this review. A logical extension of these observations suggests that the manipulation of the gut microbiota can be...