Authors: Forsberg A1, Abrahamsson TR2, Björkstén B3, Jenmalm MC1.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Mice models indicate that intact Toll like receptor (TLR) signaling may be essential for the allergy protective effects of diverse bacterial exposure observed in clinical trials and epidemiological studies. Probiotic supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri from pregnancy week 36 and to the infant through the first year of life decreased the prevalence of IgE-associated eczema at two years (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01285830). The effect of this supplementation on innate immune responses to bacterial...
Characterization of Fungi from Ruminal Fluid of Beef Cattle with Different Ages and Raised in Tropical Lignified Pastures.
Authors: AbrÃ£o FO1, Duarte ER, Freitas CE, Vieira EA, Geraseev LC, da Silva-Hughes AF, Rosa CA, Rodrigues NM.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic rumen mycobiota from three age groups of Nelore beef cattle reared extensively on lignified pasture. The experiment was randomized and sampled 50 steers, 50 cows, and 50 calves grazed on Brachiaria spp. pasture during the dry season. Rumen fluid in all animals was aromatic, slightly viscous, and greenish-brown in color. Microscopic examination revealed monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi in similar proportions (PÂ >Â 0.05) in the rumen fluid...
Probiotic Lactobacillus strains protect against myelosuppression and immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.
Authors: Salva S1, Marranzino G1, Villena J1, AgÃ¼ero G2, Alvarez S3.
Abstract: This work evaluated the capacity of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus casei CRL431 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1506, to protect against myelosuppression and immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-treated mice. Changes in mature granulocytes and progenitor cells in bone marrow (BM) and blood were studied. In addition, the ability of probiotics to accelerate the recovery of the immune response against the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans was evaluated. We demonstrated for the first time that the...
Growth-promoting effects of pepsin- and trypsin-treated caseinomacropeptide from bovine milk on probiotics.
Authors: Robitaille G, Champagne CP.
Abstract: Probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are generally fastidious bacteria and require rich media for propagation. In milk-based media, they grow poorly, and nitrogen supplementation is required to produce high bacterial biomass levels. It has been reported that caseinomacropeptide (CMP), a 7-kDa peptide released from Îº-casein during renneting or gastric digestion, exhibits some growth-promoting activity for lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. During the digestive process, peptides derived from CMP...
Authors: Wu CC1, Lin CT, Wu CY, Peng WS, Lee MJ, Tsai YC.
Abstract: Dental caries arises from an imbalance of metabolic activities in dental biofilms developed primarily by Streptococcus mutans. This study was conducted to isolate potential oral probiotics with antagonistic activities against S. mutans biofilm formation from Lactobacillus salivarius, frequently found in human saliva. We analyzed 64 L. salivarius strains and found that two, K35 and K43, significantly inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation with inhibitory activities more pronounced than those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus...
Effects of probiotic Enterococcus faecium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the faecal microflora of pet rabbits.
Authors: Benato L1, Hastie P, O'Shaughnessy P, Murray JA, Meredith A.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Probiotics are frequently used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases in pet rabbits based largely on anecdotal evidence of a beneficial effect. However, there has been little work performed to assess any such benefit in health or disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of probiotics on faecal levels of four important candidate gastrointestinal bacteria (Bacteroides species, Enterococcus faecium, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Clostridium spiroforme) in pet rabbits. Additional...
Screening of marine bacteria with bacteriocin-like activities and probiotic potential for ornate spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus) juveniles.
Authors: Nguyen VD1, Pham TT2, Thanh Nguyen TH2, Xuan Nguyen TT2, Hoj L3.
Abstract: Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, which have been found in diverse bacterial species of terrestrial origins and some from the sea. New bacteriocins with new characteristics, new origins and new applications are likely still awaiting discovery. The present study screened bacteria isolated from marine animals of interest to the aquaculture industry for antimicrobial and bacteriocin-like activities in order to uncover biodiversity of bacteriocin producers, and explore the potential...
Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.
Authors: Bianchi F1, Rossi E2, Gomes R3, Sivieri K2.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5â€‰â„ƒ. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory...
Authors: Miura K, Ohnishi H.
Abstract: Emerging data have shown a close association between compositional changes in gut microbiota and the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The change in gut microbiota may alter nutritional absorption and storage. In addition, gut microbiota are a source of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, and their compositional change can also increase the amount of TLR ligands delivered to the liver. TLR ligands can stimulate liver cells to produce proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, the gut-liver axis...
Effects of probiotics for the treatment of atopic dermatitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Authors: Kim SO1, Ah YM2, Yu YM1, Choi KH3, Shin WG4, Lee JY2.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The effects of probiotics on the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) are inconclusive.OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical effect of probiotics in the management of AD overall and in different age groups.METHODS: A comprehensive search of databases through December 2013 was performed. For this meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials measuring the treatment effects of probiotics or synbiotics in patients diagnosed with AD were included. The primary outcome was a difference in Scoring of Atopic...
Immunobiotic Lactobacillus jensenii as immune-health promoting factor to improve growth performance and productivity in post-weaning pigs.
Authors: Suda Y, Villena J, Takahashi Y, Hosoya S, Tomosada Y, Tsukida K, Shimazu T, Aso H, Tohno M, Ishida M, Makino S, Ikegami S, Kitazawa H.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Immunoregulatory probiotics (immunobiotics) have been proposed to improve piglets' immune system to avoid intestinal infections and reduce unproductive inflammation after weaning. Previously, it was demonstrated that Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937 (LjTL2937) attenuated the inflammatory response triggered by activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs) from porcine Peyer's patches (PP).OBJECTIVE: In view of the critical...
Authors: Allen SJ1, Jordan S2, Storey M1, Thornton CA1, Gravenor MB1, Garaiova I3, Plummer SF3, Wang D4, Morgan G1.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a multistrain, high-dose probiotic in the prevention of eczema.DESIGN: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial.SETTINGS: Antenatal clinics, research clinic, children at home.PATIENTS: Pregnant women and their infants.INTERVENTIONS: Women from 36â€…weeks gestation and their infants to age 6â€…months received daily either the probiotic (Lactobacillus salivarius CUL61, Lactobacillus paracasei CUL08, Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis CUL34 and...
Authors: Karlyshev AV1, Robyn J2, Rasschaert G2, Heyndrickx M.
Abstract: In this study, we present a draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis MB5259, a promising probiotic strain. The identified differences and common features between this strain and reference strains will assist in better understanding the mechanism of antibacterial action and in developing novel probiotics. Copyright Â© 2014 Karlyshev et al....
Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and palm fruits extracts on the antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the mucosae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).
Authors: Esteban MA1, Cordero H2, Martínez-Tomé M3, Jiménez-Monreal AM3, Bakhrouf A4, Mahdhi A4.
Abstract: Antioxidant activity is particularly important, since oxidation is an unavoidable reaction in all living bodies. At present, natural antioxidants to be used on food as an alternative to synthetic ones are being sought. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens were fed for 4 weeks with diets enriched with bacterial probiotics (Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 and Bacillus sp), single or in combination with Tunisian dates palm fruit extracts. The expression of the main antioxidant enzyme genes (superoxide dismutase,...
Variable Characteristics of Bacteriocin-Producing Streptococcus salivarius Strains Isolated from Malaysian Subjects.
Authors: Barbour A, Philip K.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Salivaricins are bacteriocins produced by Streptococcus salivarius, some strains of which can have significant probiotic effects. S. salivarius strains were isolated from Malaysian subjects showing variable antimicrobial activity, metabolic profile, antibiotic susceptibility and lantibiotic production.METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we report new S. salivarius strains isolated from Malaysian subjects with potential as probiotics. Safety assessment of these strains included their antibiotic...
Authors: Diarra MS1, Malouin F2.
Abstract: The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within...
Authors: Gao Z1, Kang Y2, Yu J2, Ren L2.
Abstract: The human pharyngeal microbiome, which resides at the juncture of digestive and respiratory tracts, may have an active role in the prevention of respiratory tract infections, similar to the actions of the intestinal microbiome against enteric infections. Recent studies have demonstrated that the pharyngeal microbiome comprises an abundance of bacterial species that interact with the local epithelial and immune cells, and together, they form a unique micro-ecological system. Most of the microbial species in microbiomes...
Probiotics did not prevent antibiotic-associated or C. difficile diarrhea in hospitalized older patients.
Authors: Ziakas PD, Mylonakis E.
Modulation of gut microbiota during probiotic-mediated attenuation of metabolic syndrome in high fat diet-fed mice.
Authors: Wang J1, Tang H2, Zhang C2, Zhao Y3, Derrien M4, Rocher E4, van-Hylckama Vlieg JE4, Strissel K5, Zhao L1, Obin M5, Shen J3.
Abstract: Structural disruption of gut microbiota and associated inflammation are considered important etiological factors in high fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MS). Three candidate probiotic strains, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4270 (LC), L. rhamnosus I-3690 (LR) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis I-2494 (BA), were individually administered to HFD-fed mice (108â€‰cellsâ€‰day-1) for 12 weeks. Each strain attenuated weight gain and macrophage infiltration into epididymal adipose tissue...
Optimized cryopreservation of mixed microbial communities for conserved functionality and diversity.
Authors: Kerckhof FM1, Courtens EN1, Geirnaert A1, Hoefman S2, Ho A1, Vilchez-Vargas R1, Pieper DH3, Jauregui R3, Vlaeminck SE1, Van de Wiele T1, Vandamme P2, Heylen K2, Boon N1.
Abstract: The use of mixed microbial communities (microbiomes) for biotechnological applications has steadily increased over the past decades. However, these microbiomes are not readily available from public culture collections, hampering their potential for widespread use. The main reason for this lack of availability is the lack of an effective cryopreservation protocol. Due to this critical need, we evaluated the functionality as well as the community structure of three different types of microbiomes before and after...
Authors: Hsiao CC1, Tsai ML, Chen CC, Lin HC.
Abstract: Recent advances in perinatal and neonatal intensive care have resulted in significant improvements in the survival of preterm extremely low-birthweight (PELBW) infants; however, extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) and undernutrition occur frequently during hospitalization and are associated with adverse outcomes, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, sepsis, and neurodevelopmental impairment. Early optimal parenteral nutrition with adequate amino acids and lipids, especially long-chain polyunsaturated fatty...
Authors: Gomes AC, Bueno AA, de Souza RG, Mota JF.
Abstract: Diabetes is a condition of multifactorial origin, involving several molecular mechanisms related to the intestinal microbiota for its development. In type 2 diabetes, receptor activation and recognition by microorganisms from the intestinal lumen may trigger inflammatory responses, inducing the phosphorylation of serine residues in insulin receptor substrate-1, reducing insulin sensitivity. In type 1 diabetes, the lowered expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium favours a greater immune...
Effect of intestinal colonisation by two Lactobacillus strains on the immune response of gnotobiotic mice.
Authors: Steinberg RS1, Lima M1, Gomes de Oliveira NL1, Miyoshi A1, Nicoli JR2, Neumann E2, Nunes AC1.
Abstract: The effect of intestinal colonisation on the immune system was investigated in germ-free mice monoassociated with Lactobacillus strains isolated from calf faeces. Single doses of Lactobacillus acidophilus L36 or Lactobacillus salivarius L38 were administered to germ-free mice by intragastric gavage. Ten days later, the mice were euthanised. Gene expression levels of interleukin 5 (IL-5), IL-6, IL-10, IL-12b, IL-17a, gamma interferon (IFN-Î³), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), and tumour necrosis...
Authors: Mandair D1, Rossi RE2, Pericleous M3, Whyand T4, Caplin ME3.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer worldwide after lung cancer. There is increasing evidence that diet and lifestyle plays a crucial role in prostate cancer biology and tumourigenesis. Prostate cancer itself represents a good model of cancer in which to look for chemopreventive agents due to the high disease prevalence, slowly progressive nature, and long latency period. Dietary agents have gained considerable attention, often receiving much publicity in the media.AIM: To review...
The Time for a Confirmative Necrotizing Enterocolitis Probiotics Prevention Trial in the Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant in North America Is Now!
Authors: Abrahamsson TR1, Rautava S2, Moore AM3, Neu J4, Sherman PM3.