Authors: Tursi A.
Abstract: Acute diverticulitis of the colon represents a significant burden for national health systems, in terms of direct and indirect costs. Although current guidelines recommend use of antibiotics for the outpatient treatment of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis, evidence for this is still lacking. Hence, significant effort is now being made to identify the appropriate therapeutic approach to treat and prevent relapses of diverticulitis. Outpatient treatment has been identified as a safe and effective therapeutic...
Authors: Tursi A.
Abstract: Introduction: Diverticular disease (DD) of the colon is a widespread disease, which shows worldwide increasing incidence and represents a significant burden for National Health Systems. The current guidelines claim that symptomatic uncomplicated DD (SUDD) has to be treated with spasmolithics and high-fiber diet, whereas both uncomplicated and complicated acute diverticulitis has to be treated with antibiotics. However, new physiopathological knowledge suggests that further treatment may be promising. Areas covered:...
Use of probiotics in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Authors: Gou S, Yang Z, Liu T, Wu H, Wang C.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Necrotic tissue infection can worsen the prognosis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and probiotics have been shown to be beneficial in reducing the infection rate in animal experiments and primary clinical trials. However, the results of multicenter randomized clinical trials have been contradictory. The aim of this study was to systematically review and quantitatively analyze all randomized controlled trials with regard to important outcomes in patients with predicted SAP who received probiotics.METHODS:...
Authors: Comito D, Cascio A, Romano C.
Abstract: Gut microbiota plays a significant role in human health and energy balance, and provides protection against disease states. An altered balance between microbiota and its host (dysbiosis) would appear to contribute to the development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Crohn's Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC). CD and UC are chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that occur in genetically susceptible individuals. Several genes of susceptibility are involved in inappropriate activation...
An in vitro study of the effect of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics on the elderly faecal microbiota.
Authors: Likotrafiti E1, Tuohy KM2, Gibson GR3, Rastall RA4.
Abstract: The use of dietary intervention in the elderly in order to beneficially modulate their gut microbiota has not been extensively studied. The influence of two probiotics (Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus fermentum) and two prebiotics [isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) and short-chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS)], individually and in synbiotic combinations (B. longum with IMO, L. fermentum with FOS) on the gut microbiota of elderly individuals was investigated using faecal batch cultures and three-stage continuous...
Effects of Lactobacillus casei supplementation on disease activity and inflammatory cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.
Authors: Alipour B1, Homayouni-Rad A, Vaghef-Mehrabany E, Sharif SK, Vaghef-Mehrabany L, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Nakhjavani MR, Mohtadi-Nia J.
Abstract: AIM: The present study aimed at investigating the effects of Lactobacillus casei 01 supplementation on symptoms and inflammatory biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women.METHOD: In this randomized double-blind clinical trial, female patients with established RA for more than 1Â year, 20-80Â years of age and body mass index (BMI) lower than 40, who followed stable medication for 3Â months prior to the supplementation, were randomly allocated to receive either one capsule containing 108 colony forming...
Strategies for the evaluation and selection of potential vaginal probiotics from human sources: an exemplary study.
Authors: Domig KJ1, Kiss H2, Petricevic L2, Viernstein H3, Unger F3, Kneifel W1.
Abstract: During the last years, the application of probiotics in gynaecological clinical practice has gained increasing relevance regarding therapy and prevention. This trend has also provoked the need for having tailored pharmaceutical preparations containing powerful microbial strains with defined properties. For the development of such preparations, several factors and criteria have to be considered, thereby not only focusing on identity and safety aspects as well as individual properties of the bacterial strains,...
Authors: Erdman SE1, Poutahidis T2.
Abstract: Radiant skin and hair are universal indicators of good health. It was recently shown that feeding of probiotic bacteria to aged mice rapidly induced youthful vitality characterised by thick lustrous skin and hair, and enhanced reproductive fitness, not seen in untreated controls. Probiotic-treated animals displayed integrated immune and hypothalamic-pituitary outputs that were isolated mechanistically to microbe-induced anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 and neuropeptide hormone oxytocin. In this way, probiotic...
Authors: Britton RA1, Irwin R, Quach D, Schaefer L, Zhang J, Lee T, Parameswaran N, McCabe LR.
Abstract: Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis that is associated with bone inflammation and resorption. Half of women over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporosis related fracture in their lifetime, thus novel therapies are needed to combat post-menopausal bone loss. Recent studies suggest an important role for gut-bone signaling pathways and the microbiota in regulating bone health. Given that the bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (L. reuteri) secretes beneficial immunomodulatory...
Authors: Walsh CJ1, Guinane CM2, O'Toole PW3, Cotter PD4.
Abstract: The human gut microbiota comprises approximately 100 trillion microbial cells and has a significant effect on many aspects of human physiology including metabolism, nutrient absorption and immune function. Disruption of this population has been implicated in many conditions and diseases, including examples such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer that are highlighted in this review. A logical extension of these observations suggests that the manipulation of the gut microbiota can be...
Authors: Laleman I1, Detailleur V, Slot DE, Slomka V, Quirynen M, Teughels W.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Systematically review the available literature regarding the caries-preventive effect of probiotics.DATA, SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: An electronic search was conducted in three databases (PubMed MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library) to identify all suitable studies. The outcomes had to be presented as the effect of probiotics on the incidence of caries or on the levels of mutans streptococci and/or Lactobacillus species. Human studies, written in English, with at least 15 participants,...
Authors: Cammarota G1, Ianiro G, BibbÃ² S, Gasbarrini A.
Abstract: Gut microbiota is known to have a relevant role in our health, and is also related to both gastrointestinal and extradigestive diseases. Therefore, restoring the alteration of gut microbiota represents an outstanding clinical target for the treatment of gut microbiota-related diseases. The modulation of gut microbiota is perhaps an ancestral, innate concept for human beings. At this time, the restoration of gut microbiota impairment is a well-established concept in mainstream medicine, and several therapeutic...
The Interleukin-17/Interleukin-22 Innate Axis in the Gut as a New Drug Target in Allergic-Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases. A Working Hypothesis.
Authors: Magrone T, Jirillo E1.
Abstract: The innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have been grouped into three main categories: ILC1s [T helper (h)1-like cells], ILC2s (Th2-like cells) and ILC3s (Th17-like cells), respectively. In particular, ILC3s are responsible for the secretion of both interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22, which play either protective (antimicrobial and repairing activities) or harmful (inflammation and tumor growth) roles into the host. Here, some putative interventional studies will be hypothesized, taking into account that activation of innate...
Xylo-oligosaccharides alone or in synbiotic combination with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis induce bifidogenesis and modulate markers of immune function in healthy adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, factorial cross-over study.
Authors: Childs CE1, Röytiö H2, Alhoniemi E3, Fekete AA1, Forssten SD2, Hudjec N1, Lim YN1, Steger CJ1, Yaqoob P1, Tuohy KM1, Rastall RA1, Ouwehand AC2, Gibson GR1.
Abstract: Prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics are dietary ingredients with the potential to influence health and mucosal and systemic immune function by altering the composition of the gut microbiota. In the present study, a candidate prebiotic (xylo-oligosaccharide, XOS, 8Â g/d), probiotic (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07, 109 colony-forming units (CFU)/d) or synbiotic (8Â g XOS+109 CFU Bi-07/d) was given to healthy adults (25-65 years) for 21Â d. The aim was to identify the effect of the supplements...
Oral probiotic vsl#3 attenuates the circulatory disturbances of patients with cirrhosis and ascites.
Authors: Rincón D1, Vaquero J, Hernando A, Galindo E, Ripoll C, Puerto M, Salcedo M, Francés R, Matilla A, Catalina MV, Clemente G, Such J, BaÃ±ares R.
Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS: The modulation of gut flora constitutes a therapeutic tool in patients with liver disease, but some of its modalities require further investigation. Here, we evaluated the effects of probiotics on the hepatic and systemic hemodynamic alterations of advanced liver disease.METHODS: Seventeen patients with cirrhosis and ascites were prospectively included, 5 of whom abandoned the study prematurely. Hepatic and systemic hemodynamic evaluations were performed at baseline and after 6 weeks of...
Entrapment of probiotics in water extractable arabinoxylan gels: rheological and microstructural characterization.
Authors: Morales-Ortega A1, Carvajal-Millan E2, Brown-Bojorquez F3, Rascón-Chu A4, Torres-Chavez P5, López-Franco YL6, Lizardi-Mendoza J7, Martínez-López AL8, Campa-Mada AC1.
Abstract: Due to their porous structure, aqueous environment and dietary fiber nature arabinoxylan (AX) gels could have potential applications for colon-specific therapeutic molecule delivery. In addition, prebiotic and health related effects of AX have been previously demonstrated. It has been also reported that cross-linked AX can be degraded by bacteria from the intestinal microbiota. However, AX gels have not been abundantly studied as carrier systems and there is no information available concerning their capability...
Authors: Kasivajjula H1, Maheshwari A.
Abstract: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), an inflammatory bowel necrosis of preterm infants, is the most common gastrointestinal emergency and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these infants. In this article, the authors review the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of NEC and provide a critical appraisal of the evidence supporting various prophylactic and therapeutic strategies. A literature search was performed using the databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus. Current pathophysiological models of NEC...
When should we use partially hydrolysed formulae for frequent gastro-intestinal symptoms and allergy prevention?
Authors: Vandenplas Y1, Cruchet S, Faure C, Lee H, Di Lorenzo C, Staiano A, Xu C, Aw M, Gutiérrez-Castrellón P, Asery A, Spolidoro J, Heine R, Miqdady M, Arancibia M, Alarcón P.
Abstract: Experts reviewed the literature to determine if partial whey hydrolysed formulas (HF) offers benefits in the dietary management of frequent gastro-intestinal symptoms and allergy prevention. Compared to standard cow's milk-based formulas, partial whey HF confers a limited protective effect against allergic disease in high-risk infants, particularly atopic dermatitis, but not respiratory allergies. No randomised clinical trials have been published on partial whey HF in infants with colicky symptoms. The group...
Prebiotic Effect of Fructooligosaccharide in the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME® Model).
Authors: Sivieri K1, Morales ML, Saad SM, Adorno MA, Sakamoto IK, Rossi EA.
Abstract: Maintaining "gut health" is a goal for scientists throughout the world. Therefore, microbiota management models for testing probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have been developed. The SHIME® model was used to study the effect of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on the fermentation pattern of the colon microbiota. Initially, an inoculum prepared from human feces was introduced into the reactor vessels and stabilized over 2 weeks using a culture medium. This stabilization period was followed by a 2-week control...
Authors: Kullin B1, Tannock GW, Loach DM, Kimura K, Abratt VR, Reid SJ.
Abstract: AIM: To examine the role of the L. reuteri 100-23C frc gene product in oxalate metabolism, host colonization and the acid stress response.METHODS AND RESULTS: Genes encoding putative formyl-CoA transferase (frc) and oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase (oxc) enzymes are present in the genome sequences of L. reuteri strains. Two strains isolated from humans harboured an IS200 insertion sequence in the frc ORF and a group 2 intron-associated transposase downstream of the frc gene, both of which were lacking in two strains...
Molecular analysis of infant fecal microbiota in an Asian at-risk cohort-correlates with infant and childhood eczema.
Authors: Yap GC, Loo EX, Aw M, Lu Q, Shek LP, Lee BW.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that selective microbial targets prevail in the fecal microbiota of infants with eczema. This study evaluated the composition of fecal microbiota of infants who developed eczema in the first 5 years of life and compared these with those of healthy controls.FINDINGS: Children who developed eczema in the first 2 years, those with eczema at 5 years of age and healthy controls were selected from the placebo arm of a birth cohort of at-risk infants participating in a randomized...
Authors: Gephart SM1, Spitzer AR2, Effken JA1, Dodd E2, Halpern M3, McGrath JM4.
Abstract: Objective:Better measures are needed to identify infants at risk for developing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and facilitate communication about risk across transitions. Although NEC is multi-factorial, quantification of composite risk for NEC in an individual infant is not clearly defined. The objective of this studyÂ was to describe the derivation, validation and calibration testing of a novel clinical NEC risk index, GutCheckNEC. Individual risk factors were weighted to assess composite odds of developing...
Microbiota Modification with Probiotics Induces Hepatic Bile Acid Synthesis via Downregulation of the Fxr-Fgf15 Axis in Mice.
Authors: Degirolamo C1, Rainaldi S2, Bovenga F1, Murzilli S2, Moschetta A3.
Abstract: Gut microbiota influences host health status by providing trophic, protective, and metabolic functions, including bile acid (BA) biotransformation. Microbial imprinting on BA signature modifies pool size and hydrophobicity, thus contributing to BA enterohepatic circulation. Microbiota-targeted therapies are now emerging as effective strategies for preventing and/or treating gut-related diseases. Here, we show that gut microbiota modulation induced by VSL#3 probiotics enhances BA deconjugation and fecal excretion...
Public awareness, patterns of use and attitudes toward natural health products in kuwait: a cross-sectional survey.
Authors: Awad A, Al-Shaye D.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There has been a global rise in the use of natural health products (NHPs). Proper regulation of NHPs is pivotal to ensure good quality control standards, enhance consumers' safety and facilitate their integration into modern healthcare systems. There is scarcity of published data on the prevalence of NHPs usage among the general Kuwaiti population. Hence, this study was designed to determine awareness, patterns of use, general attitude and information requirements about NHPs among the public in Kuwait.METHODS:...
Probiotics in obese pregnancy do not reduce maternal fasting glucose: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.
Authors: Lindsay KL1, Kennelly M, Culliton M, Smith T, Maguire OC, Shanahan F, Brennan L, McAuliffe FM.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported beneficial effects of probiotics on maternal glycemia in healthy pregnant women. Obesity significantly increases risk of impaired glucose tolerance in pregnancy, but glycemic effects of probiotics in this specific obstetric group require additional investigation.OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of a probiotic capsule on maternal fasting glucose in obese pregnant women.DESIGN: In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial, 175 pregnant women with an early...