Authors: Matsuoka K1, Kanai T.
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gut. Although the precise cause of IBD remains unknown, the most accepted hypothesis of IBD pathogenesis to date is that an aberrant immune response against the gut microbiota is triggered by environmental factors in a genetically susceptible host. The advancement of next-generation sequencing technology has enabled identification of various alterations of the gut microbiota composition in IBD. While some results related...
Membrane Interactions of Synthetic Peptides with Antimicrobial Potential: Effect of Electrostatic Interactions and Amphiphilicity.
Authors: Fillion M1, Valois-Paillard G, Lorin A, NoÃ«l M, Voyer N, Auger M.
Abstract: Cationic antimicrobial peptides are considered promising candidates to complement currently used antibiotics, which are less effective against increasingly resistant pathogens. To determine the mechanism of action of these peptides, a better understanding of each molecular determinant involved in their membrane interactions is of great importance. In this study, we have focused on the role of electrostatic interactions and amphiphilicity on the membrane interactions since the large majority of natural antimicrobial...
Antimicrobial Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on Cariogenic Bacteria Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mutans, and Periodontal Diseases Actinomyces naeslundii and Tannerella forsythia.
Authors: Baca-CastaÃ±ón ML1, De la Garza-Ramos MA, Alcázar-PizaÃ±a AG, Grondin Y, Coronado-Mendoza A, Sánchez-Najera RI, Cárdenas-Estrada E, Medina-De la Garza CE, Escamilla-García E.
Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well known for their beneficial effects on human health in the intestine and immune system; however, there are few studies on the impact they can generate in oral health. The aim of this study was to test and compare in vitro antimicrobial activity of L. reuteri on pathogenic bacteria involved in the formation of dental caries: S. mutans, S. gordonii, and periodontal disease: A. naeslundii and T. forsythia. Also, we determined the growth kinetics of each bacterium involved in this...
Probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum) prevent NEC in VLBW infants fed breast milk but not formula.
Authors: Repa A1, Thanhaeuser M1, Endress D2, Weber M3, Kreissl A1, Binder C1, Berger A1, Haiden N1.
Abstract: BackgroundSpecific probiotics prevent NEC. A mixture of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (Infloran) was highly effective in Asian very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. We analyzed the effect of Infloran on NEC, NEC severity and the influence of enteral feedings (breast milk vs. formula) on NEC prevention in a cohort of European VLBW infants.MethodsInfloran was implemented for routine use at our department. VLBW infants receiving probiotics were prospectively followed (2010-12) and compared to historic controls...
Authors: Larraufie P1, de Wouters T1, Potocki-Veronese G2, BlottiÃ¨re HM1, Doré J1.
Abstract: The recent developments of metagenomics permit an extremely high-resolution molecular scan of the intestinal microbiota giving new insights and opening perspectives for clinical applications. Beyond the unprecedented vision of the intestinal microbiota given by large-scale quantitative metagenomics studies, such as the EU MetaHIT project, functional metagenomics tools allow the exploration of fine interactions between food constituents, microbiota and host, leading to the identification of signals and intimate...
Migraine Associated with Gastrointestinal Disorders: Review of the Literature and Clinical Implications.
Authors: van Hemert S1, Breedveld AC2, Rovers JM3, Vermeiden JP4, Witteman BJ5, Smits MG3, de Roos NM2.
Abstract: Recent studies suggest that migraine may be associated with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel syndrome, and celiac disease. Here, an overview of the associations between migraine and GI disorders is presented, as well as possible mechanistic links and clinical implications. People who regularly experience GI symptoms have a higher prevalence of headaches, with a stronger association with increasing headache frequency. Children with a mother with a history...
The human intestinal microbiome at extreme ages of life. Dietary intervention as a way to counteract alterations.
Authors: Salazar N1, Arboleya S2, Valdés L1, Stanton C2, Ross P3, Ruiz L3, Gueimonde M1, de Los Reyes-Gavilán CG1.
Abstract: The intestinal microbiome is defined as the assembly of genomes from microorganisms inhabiting the gut. This microbial ecosystem regulates important functions of the host and its correct composition and functionality is essential for a "healthy status." Metagenomic studies have highlighted variations of the intestinal microbiota as a function of age and diet. Colonization of the infant gut starts at birth and is influenced by feeding habits (formula vs. breast-feeding), birth mode and antibiotic exposure. The...
Authors: Gaci N, Borrel G, Tottey W, O'Toole PW, BrugÃ¨re JF.
Abstract: Methanogenic archaea are known as human gut inhabitants since more than 30 years ago through the detection of methane in the breath and isolation of two methanogenic species belonging to the order Methanobacteriales, Methanobrevibacter smithii and Methanosphaera stadtmanae. During the last decade, diversity of archaea encountered in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been extended by sequence identification and culturing of new strains. Here we provide an updated census of the archaeal diversity associated...
Authors: Festi D, Schiumerini R, Eusebi LH, Marasco G, Taddia M, Colecchia A.
Abstract: Gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, as confirmed by studies conducted both on humans and animal models. Gut microbial composition and functions are strongly influenced by diet. This complex intestinal "superorganism" seems to affect host metabolic balance modulating energy absorption, gut motility, appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as hepatic fatty storage. An impairment of the fine balance between gut microbes and host's immune system could culminate...
Authors: Ebner S, Smug LN, Kneifel W, Salminen SJ, Sanders ME.
Abstract: Fermented foods have been consumed for centuries across many geographical locales and have traditionally been considered healthy foods, partly because of the live microbes contained in them. The concept of "probiotics" further requires that the microbes be defined and their health effects be demonstrated through human intervention studies or other suitable investigations before marketing with corresponding health messages. Here, we review recommendations for fermented foods and probiotics in several countries...
Authors: Oláh A, Romics Jr L.
Abstract: The use of enteral feeding as part of the management of acute pancreatitis dates back almost two decades. This review describes the indications for and limitations of enteral feeding for the treatment of acute pancreatitis using up-to-date evidence-based data. A systematic review was carried out to analyse current data on the use of enteral nutrition in the management of acute pancreatitis. Relevant literature was analysed from the viewpoints of enteral vs parenteral feeding, early vs delayed enteral nutrition,...
Probiotic administration modifies the milk fatty acid profile, intestinal morphology, and intestinal fatty acid profile of goats.
Authors: Apás AL1, Arena ME2, Colombo S3, González SN1.
Abstract: The effect of a mixture of potentially probiotic bacteria (MPPB; Lactobacillus reuteri DDL 19, Lactobacillus alimentarius DDL 48, Enterococcus faecium DDE 39, and Bifidobacterium bifidum strains) on the milk fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the middle stage of goat lactation, was determined. In addition, the effects of MPPB feeding on the FA profile in intestinal content and intestinal morphology in weaned goats were analyzed. The probiotic supplement...
Authors: Aydin A1, Ahmed K, Zaman I, Khan MS, Dasgupta P.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are more common in women and are frequently defined as â‰¥2 episodes in the last 6Â months or â‰¥3 episodes in the last 12Â months. In a primary care setting, 53Â % of women above the age of 55Â years and 36Â % of younger women report a recurrence within 1Â year. Thus, management and prevention of recurrent UTI is of utmost significance. This review aims to highlight the latest research in prevention strategies and suggest...
Effect of dietary incorporation of a multi-strain probiotic on growth performance and health status in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
Authors: Giannenas I1, Karamaligas I, Margaroni M, Pappas I, Mayer E, EncarnaÃ§Ã£o P, Karagouni E.
Abstract: Dietary supplementation with a multi-strain probiotic containing Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus reuteri has been examined for its effects on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, non-specific immune response and antioxidant status of rainbow trout. Three groups of sub-adult trout were stocked into experimental tanks. A commercial diet was used as control, while the other two groups received diets supplemented with the multi-strain probiotic at levels...
Authors: Cipriani F1, Dondi A, Ricci G.
Abstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD), named also atopic eczema, is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease with a considerable social and economic burden. The primum movens of AD is in most cases a genetic and/or immune-supported defect of the skin barrier, facilitating penetration and sensitization to food or airborne allergens, as well as infections by S. aureus, herpes simplex virus or other microbes. New pathogenetic concepts have generated new approaches to prevention and therapy of AD. In particular, the daily...
Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7315/7316 intake modulates the acute and chronic innate inflammatory response.
Authors: Vilahur G1, López-Bernal S, Camino S, Mendieta G, Padró T, Badimon L.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Probiotics may confer health benefits for the host. Although Lactobacillus has demonstrated to stimulate the immune response, only a few strains have demonstrated immunomodulatory properties. The newly identified Lactobacillus plantarum strains CECT7315 and CECT7316 (LP3457) seem to boost the immune system in individuals that immune decline. We aimed to investigate whether LP3457 protects against inflammation and the mechanism behind.METHODS: LP3457 potential anti-inflammatory effects were assessed...
Alterations of digestive enzyme activities, intestinal morphology and microbiota in juvenile paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, fed dietary probiotics.
Authors: Fang C1, Ma M, Ji H, Ren T, Mims SD.
Abstract: The effects of dietary supplementation of probiotics on digestive enzymes activities, intestinal morphology and microbiota in juvenile paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) were studied. A total of 400 fish were reared in two cages and fed with a basal diet (control group, CG) or diet supplemented with commercial probiotics (treatment group, TG) for 80Â days. Enzymes activities analysis indicated that protease and Î±-amylase activities increased (PÂ <Â 0.01 or PÂ <Â 0.05) in TG. Light microscopy observation...
Authors: Ishimwe N1, Daliri EB, Lee BH, Fang F, Du G.
Abstract: The use of probiotics as food components combats not only cardiovascular diseases but also many gastrointestinal tract disorders. Their health benefits along with their increased global market have interested scientists for better formulation and appropriate administration to the consumers. However the lack of clear elucidation of their cholesterol lowering mechanisms, have complicated their proper dosage and administration to the beneficiaries. In this review, proposed mechanisms of cholesterol reduction such...
Authors: Galland L.
Abstract: The human gut microbiome impacts human brain health in numerous ways: (1) Structural bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides provide low-grade tonic stimulation of the innate immune system. Excessive stimulation due to bacterial dysbiosis, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, or increased intestinal permeability may produce systemic and/or central nervous system inflammation. (2) Bacterial proteins may cross-react with human antigens to stimulate dysfunctional responses of the adaptive immune system....
Authors: Kubiszewska I1, Januszewska M1, Rybka J2, Gackowska L1.
Abstract: The effect of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium on human health has been examined for many years. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have confirmed the beneficial activity of some exogenous lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of rotaviral infection, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and other gastrointestinal disorders. Probiotics support the action of the intestinal microflora and exhibit a favorable modulatory effect on the host's immune system. However, it should...
Authors: Ruggiero P.
Abstract: After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and the evidence of its relationship with gastric diseases, antibiotic-based therapies were developed, which efficacy was however limited by antibiotic resistance and lack of patient compliance. A vaccine would overcome these drawbacks, but currently there is not any H. pylori vaccine licensed. In the frame of the studies aimed at finding alternative therapies or at increasing the efficacy of the current ones and/or reducing their side effects, the investigation...
Authors: Papastergiou V, Georgopoulos SD, Karatapanis S.
Abstract: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major human pathogen associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, after decades of efforts, treatment of H. pylori remains a challenge for physicians, as there is no universally effective regimen. Due to the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, mainly to clarithromycin, efficacy of standard triple therapies has declined to unacceptably low levels in most parts of the world. Novel regimens, specifically experimented to improve the therapeutic outcome...
Authors: Bringiotti R, Ierardi E, Lovero R, Losurdo G, Leo AD, Principi M.
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), namely Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are lifelong chronic disorders arising from interactions among genetic, immunological and environmental factors. Although the origin of IBDs is closely linked to immune response alterations, which governs most medical decision-making, recent findings suggest that gut microbiota may be involved in IBD pathogenesis. Epidemiologic evidence and several studies have shown that a dysregulation of gut microbiota (i.e., dysbiosis) may...
Consecutive oral administration of Bifidobacterium longum MM-2 improves the defense system against influenza virus infection by enhancing natural killer cell activity in a murine model.
Authors: Kawahara T1, Takahashi T, Oishi K, Tanaka H, Masuda M, Takahashi S, Takano M, Kawakami T, Fukushima K, Kanazawa H, Suzuki T.
Abstract: Bifidobacterium, one of the major intestinal microflora components, shows anti-influenza virus (IFV) potential as a probiotic, partly through enhancement of innate immunity from modulation of the intestinal immune system. We isolated Bifidobacterium longum MM-2 (MM-2), a very safe bacterium in humans, from healthy humans. Here, we show the protective effect of MM-2 against IFV infection in a murine model. In mice that had been intranasally inoculated with IFV, consecutive oral administration of MM-2 improved...
Authors: Paolella G, Mandato C, Pierri L, Poeta M, Di Stasi M, Vajro P.
Abstract: The incidence of obesity and its related conditions, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has dramatically increased in all age groups worldwide. Given the health consequences of these conditions, and the subsequent economic burden on healthcare systems, their prevention and treatment have become major priorities. Because standard dietary and lifestyle changes and pathogenically-oriented therapies (e.g., antioxidants, oral hypoglycemic agents, and lipid-lowering agents) often fail due to poor...