A Phase One Safety Study of Lactobacillus reuteri Conducted in the Peruvian Amazon: Observations from the Field.
Authors: Oberhelman RA, Kosek MN, PeÃ±ataro-Yori P, Paredes-Olórtegui M, Connolly E.
Abstract: Clinical research on probiotics presents challenging issues for researchers, regulators, and funding agencies, and these issues become more complex when United States federally funded research is conducted outside the United States. Here, we describe the design and results of a Phase I safety study of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 conducted as a community-based trial under the Food and Drug Administration Investigative New Drug (FDA IND) program in a small town in the Peruvian Amazon. Forty-five healthy adults...
Role of the gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis: What have we learnt in the past 10 years?
Authors: Hold GL, Smith M, Grange C, Watt ER, El-Omar EM, Mukhopadhya I.
Abstract: Our understanding of the microbial involvement in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis has increased exponentially over the past decade. The development of newer molecular tools for the global assessment of the gut microbiome and the identification of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 in 2001 and other susceptibility genes for Crohn's disease in particular has led to better understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of IBD. The microbial studies have elaborated the normal composition...
Authors: Sohier D1, Pavan S1, Riou A1, Combrisson J2, Postollec F1.
Abstract: Traditionally, culture-based methods have been used to enumerate microbial populations in dairy products. Recent developments in molecular methods now enable faster and more sensitive analyses than classical microbiology procedures. These molecular tools allow a detailed characterization of cell physiological states and bacterial fitness and thus, offer new perspectives to integration of microbial physiology monitoring to improve industrial processes. This review summarizes the methods described to enumerate...
Authors: Gahan CG1, Hill C2.
Abstract: The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has the capacity to survive and grow in a diverse range of natural environments. The transition from a food environment to the gastrointestinal tract begins a process of adaptation that may culminate in invasive systemic disease. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of how L. monocytogenes adapts to the gastrointestinal environment prior to initiating systemic infection. We will discuss mechanisms used by the pathogen to survive encounters with acidic...
A murine oral model for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and immunomodulation with Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334.
Authors: Cooney MA1, Steele JL2, Steinberg H1, Talaat AM3.
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) the causative agent of Johne's disease, is one of the most serious infectious diseases in dairy cattle worldwide. Due to the chronic nature of this disease and no feasible control strategy, it is essential to have an efficient animal model which is representative of the natural route of infection as well as a viable treatment option. In this report, we evaluated the effect of different doses of M. paratuberculosis in their ability to colonize...
Authors: Maddur H, Neuschwander-Tetri BA.
Immune response and intestinal permeability in children with acute gastroenteritis treated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG): a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.
Authors: Sindhu KN, Sowmyanarayanan TV, Paul A, Babji S, Ajjampur SS, Priyadarshini S, Sarkar R, Balasubramanian KA, Wanke CA, Ward HD, Kang G.
Abstract: Background.â€ƒProbiotics have a possible role in pediatric acute gastroenteritis. We report the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on intestinal function, immune response and clinical outcomes in Indian children with cryptosporidial or rotavirus diarrhea. Methods.â€ƒChildren with gastroenteritis aged 6 months to 5 years, testing positive for either rotavirus or Cryptosporidium spp. in stool (co-infections were excluded), were randomized to LGG (ATCC 53103) or placebo, once daily...
Administration of a Probiotic Can Change Drug Pharmacokinetics: Effect of E. coli Nissle 1917 on Amidarone Absorption in Rats.
Authors: Matuskova Z1, Anzenbacherova E2, Vecera R1, Tlaskalova-Hogenova H3, Kolar M4, Anzenbacher P1.
Abstract: The growing interest in the composition and effects of microbiota raised the question how drug pharmacokinetics could be influenced by concomitant application of probiotics. The aim of this study was to find whether probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) influences the pharmacokinetics of concomitantly taken antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone (AMI). Live bacterial suspension of probiotic EcN (or non-probiotic E. coli strain ATCC 25922) was applied orally to male Wistar rats for seven days, while a control group...
Mesalazine-probiotics beads for acetic acid experimental colitis: formulation and characterization of a promising new therapeutic strategy for ulcerative colitis.
Authors: Vishwakarma N, Ganeshpurkar A, Pandey V, Dubey N, Bansal D.
Abstract: Background: Acetic acid ulcerative colitis (UC) is an experimental condition created due to intra-rectal administration of acetic acid which causes inflammation and ulceration in the lining of colon and rectum. In such condition, the colon cannot absorb liquid from the stools, resulting in larger volume of watery stools. Mesalazine is mainly used for the treatment of UC but suffers from the drawback of having poor bioavailability. UC is also characterized by alteration in colonic microflora. The present work...
'The way to a man's heart is through his gut microbiota' - dietary pro- and prebiotics for the management of cardiovascular risk.
Authors: Tuohy KM, Fava F, Viola R.
Abstract: The human gut microbiota has been identified as a possible novel CVD risk factor. This review aims to summarise recent insights connecting human gut microbiome activities with CVD and how such activities may be modulated by diet. Aberrant gut microbiota profiles have been associated with obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Transfer of microbiota from obese animals induces metabolic disease and obesity in germ-free animals. Conversely, transfer of pathogen-free microbiota...
Authors: Lieberman J.
Abstract: Primary prevention of allergy is a laudable goal, but one that has unfortunately proven difficult to achieve. Many different strategies have been reported to date, but unequivocal supporting data for any single strategy does not exist. Any successful strategy must lead to immunomodulation and must be encountered very early on life, likely in utero. Reports of early bacterial and farm animal exposures lend supportive data to the concept of immune regulation via early fetal exposure, howeve attempts at clinical...
Authors: Gunawardana M, Mullen M, Yoo J, Webster P, Moss JA, Baum MM.
Abstract: Topical administration of live, commensal bacteria to the vaginal tract holds significant potential as a cost-effective strategy for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections and the delivery of mucosal vaccines. Intravaginal rings (IVRs) releasing probiotics embody significant theoretical advantages over traditional, daily dosage forms, such as sustained and controlled delivery leading to improved adherence to therapy compared to frequent dosing. Conventional IVR designs, however, are not amenable to...
Authors: Liu Y1, Li Y2, Liu K1, Shen J1.
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd), one of the heavy metals, is an important environmental pollutant and a potent toxicant to organism. It poses a severe threat to the growth of the organism, and also has been recognized as a human carcinogen. However, the toxicity of cadmium and its influences on microbiota in mammal's intestine are still unclear. In our experiment, the changes of intestinal microbiota in two groups of mice were investigated, which were supplied with 20 and 100 mg kg(-1) cadmium chloride respectively for 3 weeks....
Effects of genetic, processing, or product formulation changes on efficacy and safety of probiotics.
Authors: Sanders ME1, Klaenhammer TR, Ouwehand AC, Pot B, Johansen E, Heimbach JT, Marco ML, TennilÃ¤ J, Ross RP, Franz C, Pagé N, Pridmore RD, Leyer G, Salminen S, Charbonneau D, Call E, Lenoir-Wijnkoop I.
Abstract: Commercial probiotic strains for food or supplement use can be altered in different ways for a variety of purposes. Production conditions for the strain or final product may be changed to address probiotic yield, functionality, or stability. Final food products may be modified to improve flavor and other sensory properties, provide new product formats, or respond to market opportunities. Such changes can alter the expression of physiological traits owing to the live nature of probiotics. In addition, genetic...
Authors: Sanders ME1, Lenoir-Wijnkoop I, Salminen S, Merenstein DJ, Gibson GR, Petschow BW, Nieuwdorp M, Tancredi DJ, Cifelli CJ, Jacques P, Pot B.
Abstract: Probiotics and prebiotics are useful interventions for improving human health through direct or indirect effects on the colonizing microbiota. However, translation of these research findings into nutritional recommendations and public health policy endorsements has not been achieved in a manner consistent with the strength of the evidence. More progress has been made with clinical recommendations. Conclusions include that beneficial cultures, including probiotics and live cultures in fermented foods, can contribute...
Effects of multistrain probiotics on growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, cecal microbial shedding, and excreta odor contents in broilers.
Authors: Zhang ZF1, Kim IH.
Abstract: This experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bacillus subtilis, and Clostridium butyricum supplementation in broilers. A total of 400 one-day-old mixed sex Ross 308 broilers with an initial average BW of 46 ± 0.5 g were randomly allotted into 4 treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 20 broilers in each pen for 35 d. Dietary treatments were (1) an antibiotic-free diet (CON), (2) CON + 5 mg/kg of avilamycin, (3) CON + 1 Ã— 10(5) cfu of multistrain probiotics/kg...
Viability and resistance of lactobacilli isolated from cocoa fermentation to simulated gastrointestinal digestive steps in soy yogurt.
Authors: Saito VS1, Dos Santos TF, Vinderola CG, Romano C, Nicoli JR, AraÃºjo LS, Costa MM, Andrioli JL, Uetanabaro AP.
Abstract: To study the potential probiotic characteristics such as decrease of pH, microbial viability, and tolerance to simulated digestive steps of fermented soy beverage ("soy yogurt") produced with lactobacilli isolated from cocoa fermentation (Lactobacillus fermentum TcUESC01 and Lactobacillus plantarum TcUESC02) during fermentation and refrigerated storage. The sensory acceptance of the yogurts was also tested. Samples of soy yogurt produced with L. fermentum TcUESC01 or L. plantarum TcUESC02 were collected during...
Topical treatment with probiotic Lactobacillus brevis CD2 inhibits experimental periodontal inflammation and bone loss.
Authors: Maekawa T, Hajishengallis G.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: An increasing body of evidence suggests that the use of probiotic bacteria is a promising intervention approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases with a polymicrobial etiology. The objective of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus brevis CD2 could inhibit periodontal inflammation and bone loss in experimental periodontitis.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Periodontitis was induced by placing a silk ligature around the second maxillary molar of mice treated with L.Â brevis...
Increased proportions of bifidobacterium and the lactobacillus group and loss of butyrate-producing bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease.
Authors: Wang W, Chen L, Zhou R, Wang X, Song L, Huang S, Wang G, Xia B.
Abstract: Dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiota of persons with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been described, but there are still varied reports on changes in the abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus organisms in patients with IBD. The aim of this investigation was to compare the compositions of mucosa-associated and fecal bacteria in patients with IBD and in healthy controls (HCs). Fecal and biopsy samples from 21 HCs, 21 and 15 Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and 34 and 29 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients,...
Bifidobacterium adolescentis protects from the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in a mouse model.
Authors: Reichold A1, Brenner SA1, Spruss A1, Förster-Fromme K1, Bergheim I2, Bischoff SC3.
Abstract: To investigate the hypothesis that an oral supplementation of Bifidobacterium adolescentis protects against a diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in a mouse model, C57BL/6 mice were fed either a Western-style or a control diet±tap water fortified with B. adolescentis (5Ã—10(7) cfu/ml) ad libitum for 12 weeks. Mice fed a Western-style diet gained significantly more weight than mice fed a control diet and developed a mild steatohepatitis. Western-style diet fed groups concomitantly treated with B. adolescentis...
Authors: Liang S, Webb T, Li Z.
Abstract: Increasing evidence suggests that gut flora play an important role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our previous studies show that hepatic natural killer T (NKT) cells play a significant role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. In this study, we explore the mechanism by which modification of gut flora leads to the alteration of hepatic NKT cells and improvement of steatosis. Mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet to induce NAFLD. Some of them also received different doses of mixed-strain...
Authors: Duseja A, Chawla YK.
Abstract: There are trillions of microorganisms in the human intestine collectively called gut microbiota. Obesity may be affected by the gut microbiota through energy harvesting and fat storage by the bacteria. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is also responsible for endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and its consequences including obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Relationship between gut microbiota and NAFLD is also dependent on altered choline and bile acid metabolism and endogenous alcohol...
Authors: Kadlec R1, Jakubec M2.
Abstract: Prebiotics are generally considered to promote the function or viability of probiotics via their fermentation, but their effect on the adherence of probiotics is still unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of 4 commercially available prebiotics [Orafti GR, Orafti P95, and Orafti Synergy (Beneo GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), and Vivinal (Friesland Foods Domo, Amersfoort, the Netherlands)] and 3 simple saccharides (glucose, galactose, and lactose) on the adherence of 5 probiotic type strains, 2 lactococci...
Lactobacillus casei MYL01 modulates the proinflammatory state induced by ethanol in an in vitro model.
Authors: Chiu YH1, Tsai JJ2, Lin SL3, Lin MY4.
Abstract: Accumulating studies have suggested that probiotics have beneficial effects on liver injury but the underlying mechanism has remained unclear. Toll-like receptors (TLR) expressed on immune cells and hepatocytes recognize bacterial components that are translocated from the gut into the portal vein. To date, it has been demonstrated that ethanol alone, without microbial components, is able to activate TLR, leading to promotion of proinflammatory cytokine production. Because the enhanced signaling of TLR triggers...
Authors: Jones ML, Martoni CJ, Ganopolsky JG, Labbé A, Prakash S.
Abstract: Introduction: Recent evidence indicates that the human gut microbiome plays a significant role in health and disease. Dysbiosis, defined as a pathological imbalance in a microbial community, is becoming increasingly appreciated as a 'central environmental factor' that is both associated with complex phenotypes and affected by host genetics, diet and antibiotic use. More recently, a link has been established between the dysmetabolism of bile acids (BAs) in the gut to dysbiosis. Areas covered: BAs, which are transformed...