Authors: Lee SJ1, Lee JW.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In this era of increasing bacterial resistance to antimicrobial therapy, probiotics have great potential and yet they are a harmless alternative approach. This study is a prospective randomized uncontrolled trial to investigate the preventive effect of probiotic prophylaxis in infants with primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and frequently recurring urinary tract infection (UTI) during the first follow-up year.METHODS: One hundred and twenty-eight infants (aged 1Â week to 12Â months) with primary...
Authors: Zhou Z1, Gong S2, Li X3, Yang Y2, Guan R2, Zhou S2, Yao S2, Xie Y2, Ou Z2, Zhao J2, Liu Z4.
Abstract: Helicobacter pylori infection is a major risk factor for chronic gastritis, digestive ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. Due to the decreasing efficacy of anti-Helicobacter pylori antibiotic therapy in clinical practice, there is renewed interest in the development of anti-Helicobacter pylori vaccines. Bacillus subtilis is nonpathogenic and can produce endospores, which can survive under extreme conditions. These features make the Bacillus subtilis spore an ideal vehicle for delivery of heterologous...
Intestinal microbiota pathogenesis and fecal microbiota transplantation for inflammatory bowel disease.
Authors: Wang ZK, Yang YS, Chen Y, Yuan J, Sun G, Peng LH.
Abstract: The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The pathogenesis of IBD involves inappropriate ongoing activation of the mucosal immune system driven by abnormal intestinal microbiota in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there are still no definitive microbial pathogens linked to the onset of IBD. The composition and function of the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites are indeed disturbed in IBD patients. The special alterations of gut microbiota associated...
Morphofunctional Reaction of Bacteria Treated with Antimicrobial Peptides Derived from Farm Animal Platelets.
Authors: Vasilchenko AS1, Dymova VV, Kartashova OL, Sycheva MV.
Abstract: Classical microbiological approach and atomic force microscopy were used to evaluate the mechanisms of biological activity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) derived from platelets of farm animals. It is established that AMPs inhibit both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) microorganisms. Differences revealed in the biological activity of AMP preparations obtained from the organisms of various species can be reduced to quantitative differences. While qualitative changes...
Comparative survival of commercial probiotic formulations: tests in biorelevant gastric fluids and real-time measurements using microcalorimetry.
Authors: Fredua-Agyeman M, Gaisford S.
Abstract: The large number of probiotic products now available makes the decision about which product to choose difficult both for the consumer and for the specialist providing dietary/nutritional advice. Data on the viability of the bacteria in these products, in an in vivo situation, are therefore important. This study was designed to explore the comparative health and survival of probiotic species in various commercial formulations, using more realistic test systems. This might allow further understanding of factors...
Authors: Yang M1, Gong S2, Ye SQ3, Lyman B4, Geng L5, Chen P6, Li DY4.
Abstract: With increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the most common cause of liver disease among children and adolescents in industrialized countries. It is generally recognized that both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Recently, there has been a growing body of evidence to implicate altered gut microbiota in the development of NAFLD through the gut-liver axis. The first line of prevention and treatment of NAFLD...
Mass transfer characterization of gamma-aminobutyric acid production by Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003: encapsulation improves its survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.
Authors: Divyashri G1, Prapulla SG.
Abstract: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production by free and Ca-alginate encapsulated cells of Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003 was investigated. Mass transfer rates characterizing the GABA production process using encapsulated cells were investigated. Experiments were performed to investigate external film and internal pore diffusion mass transfer rates. The Damkohler and Thiele analysis provides a good description of external film and internal pore diffusion resistances, respectively. The experiments revealed that the...
Authors: Bo L1, Li J, Tao T, Bai Y, Ye X, Hotchkiss RS, Kollef MH, Crooks NH, Deng X.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is common in intensive care units (ICUs). Some evidence indicates that probiotics may reduce the incidence of VAP. Several additional published studies have demonstrated that probiotics are safe and efficacious in preventing VAP in ICUs. We aimed to systematically summarise the results of all available data to generate the best evidence for the prevention of VAP.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of probiotics for preventing VAP.SEARCH METHODS:...
Immune Response of Salmonella Challenged Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Gallipro®, a Bacillus subtilis Probiotic.
Authors: Sadeghi AA1, Shawrang P, Shakorzadeh S.
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding a probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, on antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bursal viruses in broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. One hundred and sixty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were negative control, probiotic-treated group, challenged group, and challenged probiotic treated group. Salmonella challenging decreased...
Synergistic effects of Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 and selected prebiotics on inhibition of Salmonella colonization in the swine proximal colon PolyFermS model.
Authors: Tanner SA, Chassard C, Zihler Berner A, Lacroix C.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Probiotics and prebiotics are promising strategies to counteract Salmonella prevalence in swine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of prebiotics (fructo- (FOS), galacto- (GOS) and mannan- (MOS) oligosaccharides) and the bacteriocinogenic Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 (RBL67) on Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium N-15 (N-15) colonization using the PolyFermS in vitro continuous fermentation model simulating the swine proximal colon.MATERIAL AND METHODS: The...
Authors: Peterson CT1, Sharma V, Elmén L, Peterson SN.
Abstract: The distal gut harbors âˆ¼1013 bacteria, representing the most densely populated ecosystem known. The functional diversity expressed by these communities is enormous and relatively unexplored. The past decade of research has unveiled the profound influence the resident microbial populations bestow to host immunity and metabolism. The evolution of these communities from birth generates a highly adapted and highly personalized microbiota that is stable in healthy individuals. Immune homeostasis is achieved...
Authors: Pyne DB1, West NP, Cox AJ, Cripps AW.
Abstract: Probiotic supplementation has traditionally focused on gut health. However, in recent years, the clinical applications of probiotics have broadened to allergic, metabolic, inflammatory, gastrointestinal and respiratory conditions. Gastrointestinal health is important for regulating adaptation to exercise and physical activity. Symptoms such as nausea, bloating, cramping, pain, diarrhoea and bleeding occur in some athletes, particularly during prolonged exhaustive events. Several studies conducted since 2006...
Authors: Sangild PT1, Ney DM2, Sigalet DL3, Vegge A4, Burrin DG5.
Abstract: Intestinal failure (IF), due to short bowel syndrome (SBS), results from surgical resection of a major portion of the intestine, leading to reduced nutrient absorption, and need for parenteral nutrition (PN). The incidence is highest in infants and relates to preterm birth, necrotizing enterocolitis, atresia, gastroschisis, volvulus and aganglionosis. Patient outcomes have improved, but there is a need to develop new therapies for SBS and to understand intestinal adaptation after different diseases, resection...
Application of evidence on probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics by food industry: a descriptive study.
Authors: Mugambi MN, Young T, Blaauw R.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study assessed how the food industry applies the knowledge and evidence gained from synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics research in infants, on the general paediatric population. This study also explored: what happens after the clinical trials using infant formula are completed, data is published or remains unpublished; the effectiveness and type of medium the formula manufacturers use to educate consumers on probiotic, prebiotic or synbiotic infant formula.METHODS: This was a descriptive study...
Authors: Jensen H1, DrÃ¸mtorp SM, Axelsson L, Grimmer S.
Abstract: Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus, are recognized as common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract and have received considerable attention in the last decades due to their postulated health-promoting effects. LAB and probiotic bacteria can modulate the host immune response. However, much is unknown about the mediators and mechanisms responsible for their immunological effect. Here, we present a study using cytokine secretion from the monocytic...
A review on prebiotics and probiotics for the control of dysbiosis: present status and future perspectives.
Authors: Ducatelle R, Eeckhaut V, Haesebrouck F, Van Immerseel F.
Abstract: Dysbiosis or dysbacteriosis is defined as a shift in the intestinal microbiota composition resulting in an imbalance between beneficial and harmful bacteria. Since the ban on the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in animal feed in the EU, dysbiosis has emerged as a major problem in intensive animal production. Prebiotics and probiotics are currently under investigation as possible alternatives to growth-promoting antibiotics, as their mode of action is thought to be based largely on a modulation of the composition...
Authors: Kennedy PJ, Cryan JF, Dinan TG, Clarke G.
Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an extremely prevalent but poorly understood gastrointestinal disorder. Consequently, there are no clear diagnostic markers to help diagnose the disorder and treatment options are limited to management of the symptoms. The concept of a dysregulated gut-brain axis has been adopted as a suitable model for the disorder. The gut microbiome may play an important role in the onset and exacerbation of symptoms in the disorder and has been extensively studied in this context. Although...
Authors: Iovino P, Bucci C, Tremolaterra F, Santonicola A, Chiarioni G.
Abstract: Bloating is one of the most common and bothersome symptoms complained by a large proportion of patients. This symptom has been described with various definitions, such as sensation of a distended abdomen or an abdominal tension or even excessive gas in the abdomen, although bloating should probably be defined as the feeling (e.g. a subjective sensation) of increased pressure within the abdomen. It is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders, like irritable bowel syndrome, but when bloating...
Antibiofilm Activity of the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 Against Vibrio tapetis, the Causative Agent of Brown Ring Disease.
Authors: Rodrigues S1, Paillard C, Dufour A, Bazire A.
Abstract: Vibrio tapetis CECT4600 is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium causing the brown ring disease in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. This vibriosis is induced by bacterial attachment on the periostracal lamina, yielding a decalcification of the bivalve shell. As in many bacterial species, pathogenesis is likely related to biofilm formation. The proteinaceous exoproducts of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 inhibit the formation of biofilm by most of the tested marine bacteria without affecting...
Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius UBL S22 and Prebiotic Fructo-oligosaccharide on Serum Lipids, Inflammatory Markers, Insulin Sensitivity, and Gut Bacteria in Healthy Young Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Single-Blind Pilot Study.
Authors: Rajkumar H1, Kumar M2, Das N1, Kumar SN1, Challa HR1, Nagpal R3.
Abstract: This study investigated the effect of 6-week supplementation of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius UBL S22 with or without prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on serum lipid profiles, immune responses, insulin sensitivity, and gut lactobacilli in 45 healthy young individuals. The patients were divided into 3 groups (15/group), that is, placebo, probiotic, and synbiotic. After 6 weeks, a significant reduction (P < .05) in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides...
Comparative evaluation of probiotic and salinomycin effects on performance and coccidiosis control in broiler chickens.
Authors: Abdelrahman W1, Mohnl M2, Teichmann K3, Doupovec B2, Schatzmayr G3, Lumpkins B4, Mathis G4.
Abstract: The annual financial loss to the poultry industry as a result of coccidiosis has been estimated at about US $3 billion. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of probiotics and salinomycin as feed additives on performance and coccidiosis control in male broilers raised to 42 d of age. The study consisted of 360 Cobb male broiler chickens randomly allocated to 4 groups each with 3 replicates. Group 1: untreated, unchallenged negative control group (NC); group 2: untreated, challenged...
Ondansetron and probiotics in the management of pediatric acute gastroenteritis in developed countries.
Authors: Schnadower D1, Finkelstein Y, Freedman SB.
Abstract: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common and impactful disease, typically managed with supportive care. There is considerable interest in the role of adjunctive therapies, particularly ondansetron and probiotics in improving AGE outcomes. The purpose of this review is to present the latest evidence regarding the use of these agents in children with AGE in developed countries.RECENT FINDINGS: Single-dose oral ondansetron is effective and safe in reducing hospital admissions and the use of intravenous...
Authors: Inoue Y1, Shimojo N.
Abstract: Allergies are characterized by a hypersensitive immune reaction to originally harmless antigens. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic diseases has markedly increased, especially in developed countries. The increase in the frequency of allergic diseases is thought to be primarily due to environmental changes related to a westernized lifestyle, which affects the commensal microbes in the human body. The human gut is the largest organ colonized by bacteria and contains more than 1000 bacterial species,...
Nisin Incorporated With 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid in Nanofibers Inhibits Biofilm Formation by a Methicillin-Resistant Strain of Staphylococcus aureus.
Authors: Ahire JJ1, Dicks LM.
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nisin, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and a combination of nisin and DHBA incorporated into nanofibers prepared from poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) on biofilm formation of a methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (strain Xen 31). Biofilm formation decreased by 88Â % after 24Â h of exposure to nanofibers containing nisin and DHBA (NDF), compared to a 63Â % decrease when exposed to nanofibers containing...
Live probiotic cultures and the gastrointestinal tract: symbiotic preservation of tolerance whilst attenuating pathogenicity.
Authors: Vitetta L1, Hall S2, Linnane AW1.
Abstract: Bacteria comprise the earliest form of independent life on this planet. Bacterial development has included co-operative symbiosis with plants (e.g., Leguminosae family and nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil) and animals (e.g., the gut microbiome). A fusion event of two prokaryotes evolutionarily gave rise to the eukaryote cell in which mitochondria may be envisaged as a genetically functional mosaic, a relic from one of the prokaryote cells. The discovery of bacterial inhibitors such chloramphenicol and others...