Tolerability of a probiotic in subjects with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation.
Authors: Warrack S1, Panjikar P1, Duster M1, Safdar N2.
Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen of major public health importance. Colonisation precedes infection; thus reducing MRSA carriage may be of benefit for reducing infection. Probiotics represent a novel approach to reducing MRSA carriage. We undertook a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial of the tolerability and acceptability of probiotics for reducing nasal and intestinal carriage of MRSA. In addition, subjects were screened for vancomycin-resistant enterocococci (VRE)....
Authors: Klu YA1, Phillips RD1, Chen J2.
Abstract: A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium,...
Anticandidal activity of cell extracts from 13 probiotic Lactobacillus strains and characterisation of lactic acid and a novel fatty acid derivative from one strain.
Authors: Nyanzi R1, Awouafack MD2, Steenkamp P3, Jooste PJ4, Eloff JN5.
Abstract: This study investigated the anti-Candida activity of methanol extracts from freeze-dried probiotic cells and the isolation of some constituents in the extracts. The MIC values of the probiotic methanol cell extracts against Candida albicans ranged between 1.25 and 5mg/ml after 48h of incubation. However, Lactococcus latics subsp. lactis strain X and Lactobacillus casei strain B extracts had an MIC of 10mg/ml after 48h of incubation. The extracts had fungistatic rather than fungicidal activity. These extracts...
Effect of alginate and chitosan on viability and release behavior of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 in simulated gastrointestinal fluid.
Authors: Kamalian N1, Mirhosseini H2, Mustafa S3, Manap MY2.
Abstract: The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different coating materials (i.e. Na-alginate and chitosan) on the viability and release behavior of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 in the simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). This study reports the viability of encapsulated B. pseudocatenulatum G4 coated using different alginate (2-4g/100mL) and chitosan (0.2-0.8g/100mL) concentrations. The results indicated that the highest concentration of alginate (4.4142g/100mL)...
Randomized clinical trial: Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299 v on symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.
Authors: Stevenson C1, Blaauw R2, Fredericks E3, Visser J2, Roux S3.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common diagnosis in gastroenterology. Its etiology is unknown and therapeutic options limited. Trials suggest probiotics may be beneficial. The aim of this study was to assess the symptomatic efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum 299 v (L. plantarum 299 v) for the relief of abdominal pain in patients with IBS fulfilling Rome II criteria.METHODS: This study was conducted in a referral hospital. Trial participants were randomized to receive either two capsules of L....
Authors: Bozeman MC1, Benns MV, McClave SA, Miller KR, Jones CM.
Abstract: This article reviews the current literature regarding nutritional therapy in liver disease, with an emphasis on patients progressing to liver failure as well as surgical patients. Mechanisms of malnutrition and sarcopenia in liver failure patients as well as nutritional assessment, nutritional requirements of this patient population, and goals and methods of therapy are discussed. Additionally, recommendations for feeding, micronutrient, branched chain amino acid supplementation, and the use of pre- and probiotics...
Authors: Nielsen B1, GÃ¼rakan GC, UnlÃ¼ G.
Abstract: Kefir is a fermented dairy beverage produced by the actions of the microflora encased in the "kefir grain" on the carbohydrates in the milk. Containing many bacterial species already known for their probiotic properties, it has long been popular in Eastern Europe for its purported health benefits, where it is routinely administered to patients in hospitals and recommended for infants and the infirm. It is beginning to gain a foothold in the USA as a healthy probiotic beverage, mostly as an artisanal beverage,...
Authors: Vuotto C, Longo F, Donelli G.
Abstract: Altered bowel flora is currently thought to play a role in a variety of disease conditions, and the use of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. as probiotics has been demonstrated to be health-promoting, even if the success of their administration depends on the applied bacterial strain(s) and the targeted disease. In the last few decades, specific probiotics have been shown to be effective in the treatment or the prevention of acute viral gastroenteritis, pediatric post-antibiotic-associated diarrhea,...
A 10-Patient Case Study on the Influence of Two Different Probiotics on Individual Intestinal Microbiota.
Authors: Uchiyama-Tanaka Y.
Abstract: Background: Probiotics increase beneficial microbiota and improve chronic conditions, such as atopic diseases, irritable bowel disease, and obesity. However, because there are so many probiotics, it is unknown which probiotics might have more of an effect on intestinal microbiota. Objective: To understand how two different types of probiotics influence human intestinal microbiota, human fecal microbiota were analyzed after ingestion of each of the probiotics. Methods: Ten outpatients were enrolled. Study A:...
Authors: Reid G1, Brigidi P, Burton JP, Contractor N, Duncan S, Fargier E, Hill C, Lebeer S, Martín R, McBain AJ, Mor G, O'Neill C, Rodríguez JM, Swann J, van Hemert S, Ansell J.
Abstract: As studies uncover the breadth of microbes associated with human life, opportunities will emerge to manipulate and augment their functions in ways that improve health and longevity. From involvement in the complexities of reproduction and fetal/infant development, to delaying the onset of disease, and indeed countering many maladies, microbes offer hope for human well-being. Evidence is emerging to suggest that microbes may play a beneficial role in body sites traditionally viewed as being sterile. Although...
Comparison of Lactobacillus reuteri and Nystatin Prophylaxis on Candida Colonization and Infection in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.
Authors: Oncel MY1, Arayici S, Sari FN, Kadioglu Simsek G, Yurttutan S, Erdeve O, Saygan S, Uras N, Oguz SS, Dilmen U.
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of orally administered Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) versus nystatin in prevention of fungal colonization and invasive candidiasis in very low birth weight infants. Methods: A prospective, randomized comparative study was conducted in preterm infants with a gestational age of â‰¤32 weeks and birth weight of â‰¤1500 g. Patients were randomized into two groups, to receive L. reuteri or nystatin. Skin and stool cultures were performed once...
Authors: De Greef E1, Vandenplas Y, Hauser B, Devreker T, Veereman G.
Abstract: While the role of microflora is well established in the development of inflammatory bowel disease; data is still emerging regarding irritable bowel syndrome as the knowledge on brain---gut interaction grows. For both patient groups multiple efficacious treatments exist, but there are still unmet needs as long term disease control remains an issue. Given the importance of the microbiome on the development of the immune system and the interaction between the microbiome and the host organism, this 'route' is being...
Perinatal maternal probiotic intervention impacts immune responses and ileal mucin gene expression in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome.
Authors: Barouei J1, Moussavi M1, Hodgson DM2.
Abstract: Alterations in immune responses and intestinal secretory state are among features commonly observed in the maternal separation (MS) rat model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. This study examined whether perinatal maternal introduction of probiotics influences plasma immune markers and ileal mucin-2 (MUC2) gene expression in rat offspring exposed to neonatal maternal separation (MS, 3 h/day, postnatal days (PND) 2-14) and/or subsequently to acute restraint stress in adulthood (AS, 30 min/day, PND 83-85). Data analysis...
Four weeks supplementation with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8® shows modest effect on triacylglycerol in young healthy adults.
Authors: Bjerg AT1, Kristensen M1, Ritz C1, Stark KD2, Holst JJ3, Leser TD4, Wellejus A4, Astrup A1.
Abstract: The microbiota has been shown to have the potential to affect appetite and blood lipids positively in animal studies. We investigated if four weeks supplementation with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8® (L. casei W8) had an effect on subjective appetite sensation, ad libitum energy intake, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP- 1), glucose and insulin response in humans. Secondarily, we explored potential effects on blood lipids, fatty acids and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) activity in humans...
Recombinant lactic acid bacteria as delivery vectors of heterologous antigens: the future of vaccination?
Authors: Trombert A.
Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria (LABs) are good candidates for the development of new oral vaccines and are attractive alternatives to attenuated pathogens. This review focuses on the use of wild-type and recombinant lactococci and lactobacilli with emphasis on their molecular design, immunomodulation and treatment of bacterial infections. The majority of studies related to recombinant LABs have focused on Lactococcus lactis, however, molecular tools have been successfully used for Lactobacillus spp. research. Recombinant...
What is new on the term probiotics and the role of probiotics for the management of acute gastroenteritis.
Authors: Szajewska H.
Abstract: There is an increasing interest in probiotics, and evidence of the effectiveness of probiotics in preventing or treating diarrhoeal diseases is also advancing. The purpose of this short opinion paper is to summarise two aspects of current development in regard to probiotics. First, it discusses what is new with regard to some key questions related to the term 'probiotic'. Second, recent, evidence-based, clinical practice guidelines on the use of probiotics for the management of acute gastroenteritis in children...
Hydroyeast Aquaculture® as a reproductive enhancer agent for the adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758).
Authors: Mehrim AI1, Khalil FF, Hassan ME.
Abstract: Tilapias are becoming increasingly popular culture fish because of their superior culture adaptability. In recent years, there has been a great interest in the use of probiotics in fish aquaculture. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of dietary graded levels (0, 5, 10, and 15Â g/kg commercial diet, referred to treatments numbers T1, T2, T3, and T4, for males and T5, T6, T7, and T8 treatments for females) of a new probiotic Hydroyeast Aquaculture® on hematological and biochemical...
Authors: Nemani K1, Ghomi RH2, McCormick B2, Fan X2.
Abstract: Several risk factors for the development of schizophrenia can be linked through a common pathway in the intestinal tract. It is now increasingly recognized that bidirectional communication exists between the brain and the gut that uses neural, hormonal, and immunological routes. An increased incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) barrier dysfunction, food antigen sensitivity, inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome is seen in schizophrenia. These findings may be influenced by the composition of the gut microbiota....
Authors: Schoster A1, Weese JS, Guardabassi L.
Abstract: The gastrointestinal microbiota is extremely important for human and animal health. Investigations into the composition of the microbiota and its therapeutic modification have received increasing interest in human and veterinary medicine. Probiotics are a way of modifying the microbiota and have been tested to prevent and treat diseases. Probiotics are proposed to exert their beneficial effects through various pathways. Production of antimicrobial compounds targeting intestinal pathogens, general immune stimulation,...
Authors: Kumar S1, Mahajan BB, Kamra N.
Abstract: Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that are beneficial to the host health when administered in adequate amounts. Probiotics do have an exciting concept in digestive functions, but these live microbes have wider applicability as evidenced by gut-brain-skin axis theory given 80years back. However, the details regarding use of probiotics for dermatological indications ranging from atopic dermatitis to acne and sexually transmitted infections is dispersed in the literature, herein we have tried to focus...
Preventive effects of selected probiotic strains on the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis in childhood. The Panda-study.
Authors: Gorissen DM1, Rutten NB, Oostermeijer CM, Niers LE, Hoekstra MO, Rijkers GT, van der Ent CK.
Abstract: Evidence is mounting that progressive westernization and allergic disease are associated with disturbance of the intestinal microbial balance. This includes altered early colonization patterns and reduced bacterial diversity. In 2009 we reported results of early and long-term administration of selected probiotics to high-risk infants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....
Authors: Nieto A1, Wahn U, Bufe A, Eigenmann P, Halken S, Hedlin G, HÃ¸st A, Hourihane J, Just J, Lack G, Lau S, Matricardi PM, Muraro A, Papadopoulos N, Roberts G, Simpson A, Valovirta E, Weidinger S, Wickman M, Mazon A.
Abstract: Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of Medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy. This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided in four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being...
Authors: Soukoulis C1, Behboudi-Jobbehdar S1, Yonekura L1, Parmenter C2, Fisk ID3.
Abstract: The concept of prebiotic edible films as effective vehicles for encapsulating probiotic living cells is presented. Four soluble fibres (inulin, polydextrose, glucose-oligosaccharides and wheat dextrin) were selected as prebiotic co-components of gelatine based matrices plasticised with glycerol and used for the immobilisation of Lactobacillusrhamnosus GG. The addition of prebiotics was associated with a more compact and uniform film structure, with no detectable interspaces or micropores; probiotic inclusion...
Authors: CarriÃ¨re J, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Nguyen HT.
Abstract: Important advances during the last decade have been made in understanding the complex etiopathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). While many gaps in our knowledge still exist, it has been suggested that the etiology of CD is multifactorial including genetic, environmental and infectious factors. The most widely accepted theory states that CD is caused by an aggressive immune response to infectious agents in genetically predisposed individuals. The rise of genome-wide association studies allowed the identification...
Nutrient-Dependent Efficacy of the Antifungal Protein YvgO Correlates to Cellular Proliferation Rate in Candida albicans 3153A and Byssochlamys fulva H25.
Authors: Manns DC1, Churey JJ, Worobo RW.
Abstract: YvgO is a recently characterized antifungal protein isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis SF361 that exhibits a broad spectrum of activity and pH stability. Customized colorimetric metabolic assays based on standard broth microdilution techniques were used to determine the variable tolerance of Byssochlamys fulva H25 and Candida albicans 3153A to YvgO exposure under select matrix conditions impacting cellular proliferation. Normalization of the solution pH after antifungal challenge expanded the available pH...