Anticandidal activity of cell extracts from 13 probiotic Lactobacillus strains and characterisation of lactic acid and a novel fatty acid derivative from one strain.
Authors: Nyanzi R1, Awouafack MD2, Steenkamp P3, Jooste PJ4, Eloff JN5.
Abstract: This study investigated the anti-Candida activity of methanol extracts from freeze-dried probiotic cells and the isolation of some constituents in the extracts. The MIC values of the probiotic methanol cell extracts against Candida albicans ranged between 1.25 and 5mg/ml after 48h of incubation. However, Lactococcus latics subsp. lactis strain X and Lactobacillus casei strain B extracts had an MIC of 10mg/ml after 48h of incubation. The extracts had fungistatic rather than fungicidal activity. These extracts...
Effect of alginate and chitosan on viability and release behavior of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 in simulated gastrointestinal fluid.
Authors: Kamalian N1, Mirhosseini H2, Mustafa S3, Manap MY2.
Abstract: The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different coating materials (i.e. Na-alginate and chitosan) on the viability and release behavior of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 in the simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). This study reports the viability of encapsulated B. pseudocatenulatum G4 coated using different alginate (2-4g/100mL) and chitosan (0.2-0.8g/100mL) concentrations. The results indicated that the highest concentration of alginate (4.4142g/100mL)...
Authors: Soukoulis C1, Behboudi-Jobbehdar S1, Yonekura L1, Parmenter C2, Fisk ID3.
Abstract: The concept of prebiotic edible films as effective vehicles for encapsulating probiotic living cells is presented. Four soluble fibres (inulin, polydextrose, glucose-oligosaccharides and wheat dextrin) were selected as prebiotic co-components of gelatine based matrices plasticised with glycerol and used for the immobilisation of Lactobacillusrhamnosus GG. The addition of prebiotics was associated with a more compact and uniform film structure, with no detectable interspaces or micropores; probiotic inclusion...
Improved probiotic viability in stress environments with post-culture of alginate-chitosan microencapsulated low density cells.
Authors: Song H1, Yu W2, Liu X3, Ma X4.
Abstract: In this study, probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y235) were entrapped in alginate-chitosan microcapsules by emulsification/internal gelation technique. Two different encapsulation patterns were established as directly entrapped high density cells (dEHDC) and entrapped low density cells with culture (ELDCwc). The performance of microencapsulated cells, with free cells (FC) as control, was investigated against sequential stress environments of freeze-drying, storage, and simulated gastrointestinal fluids. After...
Improvement in Th1/Th2 immune homeostasis, antioxidative status and resistance to pathogenic E. coli on consumption of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus fermented milk in aging mice.
Authors: Sharma R1, Kapila R, Dass G, Kapila S.
Abstract: Imbalance in Th1/Th2 immune pathways and cellular antioxidant systems with progressive aging are among the leading causes of increased risk of morbidity and mortality in elderly. Although probiotics have been considered to boost immune system, there is a lack of comprehensive analysis of probiotic effects on aging physiology. The present study aimed at determining anti-immunosenescence potential of milk fermented with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) in 16Â months old mice by concurrent analysis of immunosenescence...
Effect of probiotics on antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of crude peptide extract from yogurt.
Authors: Sah BN1, Vasiljevic T1, McKechnie S2, Donkor ON3.
Abstract: Search for bioactive peptides is intensifying because of the risks associated with the use of synthetic therapeutics, thus peptide liberation by lactic acid bacteria and probiotics has received a great focus. However, proteolytic capacity of these bacteria is strain specific. The study was conducted to establish proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC® 4356™), Lactobacillus casei (ATCC® 393™) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (ATCC® BAA52™) in yogurt. Crude peptides were separated...
Authors: Sarno M1, Lania G, Cuomo M, Nigro F, Passannanti F, Budelli A, Fasano F, Troncone R, Auricchio S, Barone MV, Nigro R, Nanayakkara M.
Abstract: Several recent reports describe a role of probiotics as a therapeutic approach for celiac disease (CD). Two undigested A-gliadin peptides, P31-43 and P57-68, are central to CD pathogenesis, inducing an innate and an adaptive immune response, respectively. They enter enterocytes and localize to vesicular compartment to induce their toxic/immunogenics effects. In this article, we tested the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei (LP) CBA L74 (International Depository Accession Number LMG P-24778), its supernatant...
A Comparative Pan-Genome Perspective of Niche-Adaptable Cell-Surface Protein Phenotypes in Lactobacillus rhamnosus.
Authors: Kant R1, Rintahaka J1, Yu X1, Sigvart-Mattila P2, Paulin L3, Mecklin JP4, Saarela M5, Palva A1, von Ossowski I1.
Abstract: Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a ubiquitously adaptable Gram-positive bacterium and as a typical commensal can be recovered from various microbe-accessible bodily orifices and cavities. Then again, other isolates are food-borne, with some of these having been long associated with naturally fermented cheeses and yogurts. Additionally, because of perceived health benefits to humans and animals, numerous L. rhamnosus strains have been selected for use as so-called probiotics and are often taken in the form of dietary...
Authors: Sadowska-Krawczenko I1, Paprzycka M2, Korbal P3, Wiatrzyk A4, Krysztopa-Grzybowska K4, Polak M4, Czajka U4, Lutyńska A4.
Abstract: A disseminated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 infection was suspected in a 6 day-old newborn with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) symptoms, treated empirically with antibiotics and given L. rhamnosus GG with the aim of preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complications. The level of C-reactive protein on day 5 compared with day 2 was increased in spite of negative urine and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. The blood sampled on day 6 was found to be positive for lactobacilli, and the isolate...
Short-term periodic consumption of multiprobiotic from childhood improves insulin sensitivity, prevents development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and adiposity in adult rats with glutamate-induced obesity.
Authors: Savcheniuk O, Kobyliak N, Kondro M, Virchenko O, Falalyeyeva T, Beregova T.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Today the impairment of metabolism and obesity are being extensively investigated due to the significant increase of the prevalence of these diseases. There is scientific evidence that probiotics are beneficial for human health. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of multiprobiotic "Symbiter acidophilic concentrated" on obesity parameters in the rats under experimental obesity.METHODS: The study was carried out on 60 newborn Wistar rats, divided into 3 groups, 20 animals in each...
Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus crispatus 2,029: Homeostatic Interaction with Cervicovaginal Epithelial Cells and Antagonistic Activity to Genitourinary Pathogens.
Authors: Abramov V1, Khlebnikov V, Kosarev I, Bairamova G, Vasilenko R, Suzina N, Machulin A, Sakulin V, Kulikova N, Vasilenko N, Karlyshev A, Uversky V, Chikindas ML, Melnikov V.
Abstract: Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 isolated upon investigation of vaginal lactobacilli of healthy women of reproductive age was selected as a probiotic candidate. The aim of the present study was elucidation of the role of L. crispatus 2029 in resistance of the female reproductive tract to genitourinary pathogens using cervicovaginal epithelial model. Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 has surface layers (S-layers), which completely surround cells as the outermost component of their envelope. S-layers are responsible for...
The detection of the methylated wif-1 gene is more accurate than a fecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening.
Authors: Amiot A1, Mansour H2, Baumgaertner I3, Delchier JC4, Tournigand C5, Furet JP6, Carrau JP7, Canoui-Poitrine F8, Sobhani I1; CRC group of Val De Marne.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The clinical benefit of guaiac fecal occult blood tests (FOBT) is now well established for colorectal cancer screening. Growing evidence has demonstrated that epigenetic modifications and fecal microbiota changes, also known as dysbiosis, are associated with CRC pathogenesis and might be used as surrogate markers of CRC.PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study that included all consecutive subjects that were referred (from 2003 to 2007) for screening colonoscopies. Prior to colonoscopy,...
Authors: Bernat N1, Cháfer M2, Chiralt A2, González-Martínez C2.
Abstract: A new fermented almond "milk" that combined the properties of both almonds and probiotics was considered to cover the current versatile health-promoting foods' demand. Almond milk fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus was studied by using a Central Composite design with response surface methodology, and different factors (glucose, fructose, inulin and starters) were optimised to assure high probiotic survivals in the final product. The optimal formulation was physicochemically...
Authors: Lorenzo-ZÃºÃ±iga V, Llop E, Suárez C, Alvarez B, Abreu L, Espadaler J, Serra J.
Abstract: AIM: To determine the dose-related effects of a novel probiotic combination, I.31, on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-related quality of life (IBS-QoL).METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention clinical trial with three parallel arms was designed. A total of 84 patients (53 female, 31 male; age range 20-70 years) with IBS and diarrhea according to Rome-III criteria were randomly allocated to receive one capsule a day for 6 wk containing: (1) I.31 high dose (n = 28); (2)...
Progress in pediatrics in 2013: choices in allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses.
Authors: Caffarelli C, Santamaria F, Vottero A, Povesi Dascola C, Mirra V, Sperli F, Bernasconi S.
Abstract: This review will provide new information related to pathophysiology and management of specific diseases that have been addressed by selected articles published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2013, focusing on allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses in children. Recommendations for interpretation of skin prick test to foods in atopic eczema, management of allergic conjunctivitis, hypertension and...
Contrasting effects of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid membrane incorporation into cardiomyocytes on free cholesterol turnover.
Authors: Doublet A1, Robert V2, Vedie B3, Rousseau-Ralliard D4, Reboulleau A1, Grynberg A5, Paul JL6, Fournier N7.
Abstract: The preservation of a constant pool of free cholesterol (FC) is critical to ensure several functions of cardiomyocytes. We investigated the impact of the membrane incorporation of arachidonic acid (C20:4 Ï‰6, AA) or docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 Ï‰3, DHA) as Ï‰6 or Ï‰3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on cholesterol homeostasis in primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. We measured significant alterations to the phospholipid FA profiles, which had markedly different Ï‰6/Ï‰3 ratios...
Authors: Amodio P1, Canesso F, Montagnese S.
Abstract: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The burden of hepatic encephalopathy on health services is increasing, and some degree of consensus in relation to drug therapy and prophylaxis has been reached. This review focuses on the role of nutritional interventions in the management of hepatic encephalopathy.RECENT FINDINGS: A number of relatively new pieces of evidence are emerging in relation to nutrition and hepatic encephalopathy as follows: first, reduction of protein intake is not useful for hepatic encephalopathy, but protein...
Authors: DuPont HL.
Abstract: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasing in all regions of the world where sought. There is no gold standard for diagnosis of CDI, with available tests having limitations. Prevention of CDI will be seen with antibiotic stewardship, improved disinfection of hospitals and nursing homes, chemo- and immuno-prophylaxis and next generation probiotics. The important therapeutic agents are oral vancomycin and fidaxomicin with metronidazole being used only in mild cases or when oral therapy cannot be given....
Early colonizing Escherichia coli elicits remodeling of rat colonic epithelium shifting toward a new homeostatic state.
Authors: Tomas J1, Reygner J2, Mayeur C1, Ducroc R3, Bouet S4, Bridonneau C1, Cavin JB3, Thomas M1, Langella P1, Cherbuy C1.
Abstract: We investigated the effects of early colonizing bacteria on the colonic epithelium. We isolated dominant bacteria, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus intestinalis, Clostridium innocuum and a novel Fusobacterium spp., from the intestinal contents of conventional suckling rats and transferred them in different combinations into germfree (GF) adult rats. Animals were investigated after various times up to 21 days. Proliferative cell markers (Ki67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, phospho-histone...
Authors: Jones ML1, Ganopolsky JG1, Martoni CJ1, Labbé A1, Prakash S2.
Abstract: The human gastrointestinal tract hosts a large number of microbial cells which exceed their mammalian counterparts by approximately 3-fold. The genes expressed by these microorganisms constitute the gut microbiome and may participate in diverse functions that are essential to the host, including digestion, regulation of energy metabolism, and modulation of inflammation and immunity. The gut microbiome can be modulated by dietary changes, antibiotic use, or disease. Different ailments have distinct associated...
Oral delivery of probiotic expressing M cell homing peptide conjugated BmpB vaccine encapsulated into alginate/chitosan/alginate microcapsules.
Authors: Jiang T1, Singh B1, Maharjan S1, Li HS1, Kang SK1, Bok JD1, Cho CS2, Choi YJ3.
Abstract: Oral administration of live probiotics as antigen delivery vectors is a promising approach in vaccine development. However, the low survival of probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract limits this approach. Therefore, the aim of this study is the encapsulation of probiotic expressing vaccine into alginate/chitosan/alginate (ACA) microcapsules (MCs) for efficient oral vaccine delivery. Here, recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum 25 (LP25) expressing M cell homing peptide fused BmpB protein was used as a model probiotic....
Authors: Nowak A1, Kuberski S, Libudzisz Z.
Abstract: Humans can be exposed to N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) due to many environmental sources, as well as due to endogenous formation. The main nitrosamine which is found in food products and is also synthesized in vivo by the intestinal microbiota is N-nitrosodimethylamine. It can cause cancer of the stomach, kidney, and colon. The effect of four probiotic Lactobacillus strains on NDMA was studied under different culture conditions (24Â h in MRS, 168Â h in modified MRS N, and 168Â h in phosphate buffer). HPLC...
Effect of Intestinal Microbiota Alteration on Hepatic Damage in Rats with Acute Rejection After Liver Transplantation.
Authors: Xie Y1, Chen H, Zhu B, Qin N, Chen Y, Li Z, Deng M, Jiang H, Xu X, Yang J, Ruan B, Li L.
Abstract: The previous studies all focus on the effect of probiotics and antibiotics on infection after liver transplantation. Here, we focus on the effect of gut microbiota alteration caused by probiotics and antibiotics on hepatic damage after allograft liver transplantation. Brown-Norway rats received saline, probiotics, or antibiotics via daily gavage for 3Â weeks. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) was carried out after 1Â week of gavage. Alteration of the intestinal microbiota, liver function and histopathology,...
Effects of Citrus junos by-products fermented with multi-strain probiotics on growth performance, immunity, caecal microbiology and meat oxidative stability in broilers.
Authors: Ahmed ST1, Mun HS, Islam M, Kim SS, Hwang JA, Kim YJ, Yang CJ.
Abstract: 1. The present study was conducted to develop Citrus junos probiotics (CJP), using by-products of Citrus junos fermented with multi-species probiotic bacteria including: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bacillus subtilis. The effects of dietary CJP on the growth performance, immune status, caecal microbiology and meat oxidative stability of broiler were investigated. 2. A total of 240 d-old Ross broiler chicks were used in a 35 d experiment in which the chicks were...
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis: alterations in inflammation, innate immune response, and the microbiota.
Authors: Underwood MA1, Arriola J2, Gerber CW2, Kaveti A2, Kalanetra KM3, Kananurak A4, Bevins CL4, Mills DA3, Dvorak B2.
Abstract: Background:Probiotics decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolits (NEC). We sought to determine the impact of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) in the established rat model of NEC.Methods:Rat pups delivered one day prior to term gestation were assigned to one of three groups: dam-fed (DF), formula-fed (FF), or fed with formula supplemented with 5 x 106 CFU B. infantis per day (FF+Binf). Experimental pups were exposed to hypoxia and cold stress. Ileal tissue was examined for pathology and...