Tolerability of a probiotic in subjects with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation.
Authors: Warrack S1, Panjikar P1, Duster M1, Safdar N2.
Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen of major public health importance. Colonisation precedes infection; thus reducing MRSA carriage may be of benefit for reducing infection. Probiotics represent a novel approach to reducing MRSA carriage. We undertook a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial of the tolerability and acceptability of probiotics for reducing nasal and intestinal carriage of MRSA. In addition, subjects were screened for vancomycin-resistant enterocococci (VRE)....
Authors: Klu YA1, Phillips RD1, Chen J2.
Abstract: A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium,...
Anticandidal activity of cell extracts from 13 probiotic Lactobacillus strains and characterisation of lactic acid and a novel fatty acid derivative from one strain.
Authors: Nyanzi R1, Awouafack MD2, Steenkamp P3, Jooste PJ4, Eloff JN5.
Abstract: This study investigated the anti-Candida activity of methanol extracts from freeze-dried probiotic cells and the isolation of some constituents in the extracts. The MIC values of the probiotic methanol cell extracts against Candida albicans ranged between 1.25 and 5mg/ml after 48h of incubation. However, Lactococcus latics subsp. lactis strain X and Lactobacillus casei strain B extracts had an MIC of 10mg/ml after 48h of incubation. The extracts had fungistatic rather than fungicidal activity. These extracts...
Effect of alginate and chitosan on viability and release behavior of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 in simulated gastrointestinal fluid.
Authors: Kamalian N1, Mirhosseini H2, Mustafa S3, Manap MY2.
Abstract: The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different coating materials (i.e. Na-alginate and chitosan) on the viability and release behavior of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 in the simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). This study reports the viability of encapsulated B. pseudocatenulatum G4 coated using different alginate (2-4g/100mL) and chitosan (0.2-0.8g/100mL) concentrations. The results indicated that the highest concentration of alginate (4.4142g/100mL)...
Randomized clinical trial: Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299 v on symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.
Authors: Stevenson C1, Blaauw R2, Fredericks E3, Visser J2, Roux S3.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common diagnosis in gastroenterology. Its etiology is unknown and therapeutic options limited. Trials suggest probiotics may be beneficial. The aim of this study was to assess the symptomatic efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum 299 v (L. plantarum 299 v) for the relief of abdominal pain in patients with IBS fulfilling Rome II criteria.METHODS: This study was conducted in a referral hospital. Trial participants were randomized to receive either two capsules of L....
Authors: Bozeman MC1, Benns MV, McClave SA, Miller KR, Jones CM.
Abstract: This article reviews the current literature regarding nutritional therapy in liver disease, with an emphasis on patients progressing to liver failure as well as surgical patients. Mechanisms of malnutrition and sarcopenia in liver failure patients as well as nutritional assessment, nutritional requirements of this patient population, and goals and methods of therapy are discussed. Additionally, recommendations for feeding, micronutrient, branched chain amino acid supplementation, and the use of pre- and probiotics...
Preventive effects of selected probiotic strains on the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis in childhood. The Panda-study.
Authors: Gorissen DM1, Rutten NB, Oostermeijer CM, Niers LE, Hoekstra MO, Rijkers GT, van der Ent CK.
Abstract: Evidence is mounting that progressive westernization and allergic disease are associated with disturbance of the intestinal microbial balance. This includes altered early colonization patterns and reduced bacterial diversity. In 2009 we reported results of early and long-term administration of selected probiotics to high-risk infants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....
Authors: Nieto A1, Wahn U, Bufe A, Eigenmann P, Halken S, Hedlin G, HÃ¸st A, Hourihane J, Just J, Lack G, Lau S, Matricardi PM, Muraro A, Papadopoulos N, Roberts G, Simpson A, Valovirta E, Weidinger S, Wickman M, Mazon A.
Abstract: Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of Medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy. This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided in four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being...
Authors: Soukoulis C1, Behboudi-Jobbehdar S1, Yonekura L1, Parmenter C2, Fisk ID3.
Abstract: The concept of prebiotic edible films as effective vehicles for encapsulating probiotic living cells is presented. Four soluble fibres (inulin, polydextrose, glucose-oligosaccharides and wheat dextrin) were selected as prebiotic co-components of gelatine based matrices plasticised with glycerol and used for the immobilisation of Lactobacillusrhamnosus GG. The addition of prebiotics was associated with a more compact and uniform film structure, with no detectable interspaces or micropores; probiotic inclusion...
Nutrient-Dependent Efficacy of the Antifungal Protein YvgO Correlates to Cellular Proliferation Rate in Candida albicans 3153A and Byssochlamys fulva H25.
Authors: Manns DC1, Churey JJ, Worobo RW.
Abstract: YvgO is a recently characterized antifungal protein isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis SF361 that exhibits a broad spectrum of activity and pH stability. Customized colorimetric metabolic assays based on standard broth microdilution techniques were used to determine the variable tolerance of Byssochlamys fulva H25 and Candida albicans 3153A to YvgO exposure under select matrix conditions impacting cellular proliferation. Normalization of the solution pH after antifungal challenge expanded the available pH...
Authors: Fetzner S.
Abstract: Bacteria use cell-to-cell communication systems based on chemical signal molecules to coordinate their behavior within the population. These quorum sensing systems are potential targets for antivirulence therapies, because many bacterial pathogens control the expression of virulence factors via quorum sensing networks. Since biofilm maturation is also usually influenced by quorum sensing, quenching these systems may contribute to combat biofouling. One possibility to interfere with quorum sensing is signal inactivation...
Lactococcus lactis IBB477 presenting adhesive and muco-adhesive properties as a candidate carrier strain for oral vaccination against influenza virus.
Authors: Radziwill-Bienkowska JM1, Zochowska D2, Bardowski J1, Mercier-Bonin M3, Kowalczyk M1.
Abstract: In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), adhesion is a prerequisite for bacterial colonisation. Lactococci can be used in functional food (probiotics) and health-related applications (mucosal vaccines, therapeutic drug delivery), both potentially involving adhesive properties. A candidate lactic acid bacterium for influenza antigen delivery through the GIT should display the ability to adhere. The present work probes the interactions between Lactococcus lactis and mucins using pig gastric mucin (PGM) as a model....
Authors: Cox CM, Dalloul RA.
Abstract: Recently, there has been an increasing debate regarding the use of sub-therapeutic antibiotics in animal feed. This stems from worries that this practice may result in microbial resistance to human antibiotics employed in treating infections, thus causing a human health concern. Due to this tension, the poultry industry is under mounting pressure to reduce the use of these agents as feed additives and alternative control methods have taken the forefront in the research community. Investigators are searching...
Effects of probiotics and application methods on performance and response of broiler chickens to an Eimeria challenge.
Authors: Ritzi MM1, Abdelrahman W2, Mohnl M3, Dalloul RA4.
Abstract: Coccidiosis is an inherent risk in the commercial broiler industry and inflicts devastating economic losses to poultry operations. Probiotics may provide a potential alternative to the prophylactic use of anticoccidials in commercial production. This study evaluated the effects of probiotic applications (feed and water) on bird performance and resistance to a mixed Eimeria infection in commercial broilers. On day of hatch, 1,008 commercial male broilers (Cobb 500) were assigned to 1 of 6 treatments (8 replicate...
Authors: Ray D1, Alpini G2, Glaser S3.
Abstract: NA.Copyright Â© 2014, American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology....
Isolation of a putative probiotic strain S12 and its effect on growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease-resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.
Authors: Liu H1, Li Z2, Tan B3, Lao Y2, Duan Z2, Sun W1, Dong X1.
Abstract: The common pathogens in aquaculture are very different from those in terrestrial animals. The objective of this study was to isolate probiotic strain (s) from the digestive tract of healthy white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which was effective against aquatic animal pathogens. The putative probiotic strain S12 was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on the morphological and biochemical properties and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The L. vannamei were fed with five different diets: control (basal diet with no probiotics...
Association of mutation patterns in GyrA and ParC genes with quinolone resistance levels in lactic acid bacteria.
Authors: Li S1, Li Z1, Wei W2, Ma C1, Song X1, Li S3, He W4, Tian J1, Huo X1.
Abstract: The quinolone resistance of 19 lactic acid bacterial strains belonging to the genera Enterococcus and Lactobacillus isolated from the natural fermented koumiss and yoghurt were investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the quinolone resistance levels and to explore the association of the resistance with the mutation patterns in gyrA and parC genes, as is currently recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Joint Expert Committee in Guidelines for Evaluation...
Effects of fermented corni fructus and fermented kelp on growth performance, meat quality and emission of ammonia and hydrogen sulphide from faeces and urine in broiler chickens.
Authors: Ahmed ST1, Mun HS, Islam M, Yang CJ.
Abstract: 1. Corni fructus is the fruit of Cornus officinalis, a dogwood species. This study was conducted to prepare fermented corni fructus preparation (FCFP) and fermented kelp (FK) from corni fructus and by-products of Laminaria japonica fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae. 2. The effects of dietary FCFP and FK as replacer of oxytetracycline (OTC) on growth performance, meat composition, meat oxidative stability and emissions of ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) from broiler chicken droppings...
Probiotics and vitamin C for the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children attending preschool: a randomised controlled pilot study.
Authors: Garaiova I1, Muchová J2, Nagyová Z3, Wang D4, Li JV5, Országhová Z2, Michael DR1, Plummer SF1, DuraÄková Z2.
Abstract: Background:This pilot study investigates the efficacy of a probiotic consortium (Lab4) in combination with vitamin C on the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children attending preschool facilities.Subjects/methods:In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study with children aged 3-6 years, 57 received 1.25 Ã— 1010 colony-forming units of Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL21 (NCIMB 30156), Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL60 (NCIMB 30157), Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL20 (NCIMB 30153) and...
Authors: Patterson E, Cryan JF, Fitzgerald GF, Ross RP, Dinan TG, Stanton C.
Abstract: A healthy gut microbiota plays many crucial functions in the host, being involved in the correct development and functioning of the immune system, assisting in the digestion of certain foods and in the production of health-beneficial bioactive metabolites or 'pharmabiotics'. These include bioactive lipids (including SCFA and conjugated linoleic acid) antimicrobials and exopolysaccharides in addition to nutrients, including vitamins B and K. Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota and reductions...
Authors: Nazareth S1, Lebwohl B, Tennyson CA, Simpson S, Greenlee H, Green PH.
Abstract: BACKGROUND:: There has been increasing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the general population. Little is known about CAM use in patients with celiac disease (CD).GOALS:: We aimed to determine the demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with biopsy-proven CD who use dietary supplements to treat their symptoms.STUDY:: CD patients completed a questionnaire on demographics, types of dietary supplement use, attitudes toward CAM, and 3 validated scales: CD-related...
Authors: Orel R, Kamhi Trop T.
Abstract: It has been presumed that aberrant immune response to intestinal microorganisms in genetically predisposed individuals may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel disease, and there is a good deal of evidence supporting this hypothesis. Commensal enteric bacteria probably play a central role in pathogenesis, providing continuous antigenic stimulation that causes chronic intestinal injury. A strong biologic rationale supports the use of probiotics and prebiotics for inflammatory bowel...
Effect of Chocobar Ice Cream Containing Bifidobacterium on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli: A Randomised Controlled Trial.
Authors: Nagarajappa R, Daryani H, Sharda AJ, Asawa K, Batra M, Sanadhya S, Ramesh G.
Abstract: Purpose: To examine the effect of chocobar ice cream containing bifidobacteria on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. Materials and Methods: A double-blind, randomised controlled trial was conducted with 30 subjects (18 to 22 years of age) divided into 2 groups, test (chocobar ice cream with probiotics) and control (chocobar ice cream without probiotics). The subjects were instructed to eat the allotted chocobar ice cream once daily for 18 days. Saliva samples collected at intervals were cultured...
Authors: Pathak M.
Abstract: Diabetes is the common, exponentially growing, serious human health problem existing globally. Risk factors like genetic predisposition, lack of balanced diet, inappropriate and lethargic lifestyle, overweight, obesity, stress including emotional and oxidative and lack of probiotics in gut are found to be the causing factors either in isolation or in synergy predisposing Diabetes. High blood sugar is a common symptom in all types of diabetes mellitus and the physiological cause of diabetes is lack of hormone...
Basic and clinical research on the regulation of the intestinal barrier by Lactobacillus and its active protein components: a review with experience of one center.
Authors: Liu ZH1, Kang L, Wang JP.
Abstract: Probiotics got protective effects on the intestinal barrier. Our present study is to review the basic and clinical progress on the regulation of the intestinal barrier by Lactobacillus and its active protein components, combing the study of our center. Our study have isolated the active component of micro integral membrane protein (MIMP) within the media place of the integral membrane protein of Lactobacillus plantarum, which was verified about the protective effects against the intestinal epithelial dysfunction....