Authors: Gomez Arango LF1, Barrett HL, Callaway LK, Nitert MD.
Abstract: Complications of pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes for mother and baby in the short and long term. The gut microbiome has been identified as a key factor for maintaining health outside of pregnancy and could contribute to pregnancy complications. In addition, the vaginal and the recently revealed placental microbiome are altered in pregnancy and may play a role in pregnancy complications. Probiotic supplementation could help to regulate the unbalanced microflora composition observed in obesity and...
A review of the literature regarding nutritional supplements and their effect on vaginal flora and preterm birth.
Authors: Cooper NA1, Moores R; and the East London Preterm Prevention Collaboration.
Abstract: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review was to evaluate recently published review articles which examine the use of nutritional supplements to prevent preterm birth (PTB) by modifying vaginal bacteria.RECENT FINDINGS: Probiotics, vitamin D and vitamin C were all identified as nutritional supplements that have the potential to alter bacterial flora and consequently reduce PTB and treat or prevent genital infections. Evidence shows that probiotics may reduce the incidence of PTB as well as being effective at...
Increased Survival of Juvenile Turbot Scophthalmus maximus by Using Bacteria Associated with CulturedÂ Oysters.
Authors: Farto Seguín RM1, BermÃºdez MB, Rivera L, Nieto TP.
Abstract: Preventing vibriosis in juvenile cultured Turbot Scophthalmus maximus caused by Vibrio anguillarum frequently requires the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics in addition to vaccines. Whether the use of probiotics instead of antibiotics in juvenile Turbot is a safer strategy requires more study. The antibacterial potential of 148 Vibrio spp. strains (mostly isolated from cultures of healthy oysters, clams, and Turbot) was analyzed in vitro against V. anguillarum and other pathogens by means of an agar...
Tolerability of a probiotic in subjects with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation.
Authors: Warrack S1, Panjikar P1, Duster M1, Safdar N2.
Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen of major public health importance. Colonisation precedes infection; thus reducing MRSA carriage may be of benefit for reducing infection. Probiotics represent a novel approach to reducing MRSA carriage. We undertook a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial of the tolerability and acceptability of probiotics for reducing nasal and intestinal carriage of MRSA. In addition, subjects were screened for vancomycin-resistant enterocococci (VRE)....
Authors: Klu YA1, Phillips RD1, Chen J2.
Abstract: A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium,...
Anticandidal activity of cell extracts from 13 probiotic Lactobacillus strains and characterisation of lactic acid and a novel fatty acid derivative from one strain.
Authors: Nyanzi R1, Awouafack MD2, Steenkamp P3, Jooste PJ4, Eloff JN5.
Abstract: This study investigated the anti-Candida activity of methanol extracts from freeze-dried probiotic cells and the isolation of some constituents in the extracts. The MIC values of the probiotic methanol cell extracts against Candida albicans ranged between 1.25 and 5mg/ml after 48h of incubation. However, Lactococcus latics subsp. lactis strain X and Lactobacillus casei strain B extracts had an MIC of 10mg/ml after 48h of incubation. The extracts had fungistatic rather than fungicidal activity. These extracts...
Authors: Cipriani F1, Dondi A, Ricci G.
Abstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD), named also atopic eczema, is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease with a considerable social and economic burden. The primum movens of AD is in most cases a genetic and/or immune-supported defect of the skin barrier, facilitating penetration and sensitization to food or airborne allergens, as well as infections by S. aureus, herpes simplex virus or other microbes. New pathogenetic concepts have generated new approaches to prevention and therapy of AD. In particular, the daily...
Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7315/7316 intake modulates the acute and chronic innate inflammatory response.
Authors: Vilahur G1, López-Bernal S, Camino S, Mendieta G, Padró T, Badimon L.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Probiotics may confer health benefits for the host. Although Lactobacillus has demonstrated to stimulate the immune response, only a few strains have demonstrated immunomodulatory properties. The newly identified Lactobacillus plantarum strains CECT7315 and CECT7316 (LP3457) seem to boost the immune system in individuals that immune decline. We aimed to investigate whether LP3457 protects against inflammation and the mechanism behind.METHODS: LP3457 potential anti-inflammatory effects were assessed...
Alterations of digestive enzyme activities, intestinal morphology and microbiota in juvenile paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, fed dietary probiotics.
Authors: Fang C1, Ma M, Ji H, Ren T, Mims SD.
Abstract: The effects of dietary supplementation of probiotics on digestive enzymes activities, intestinal morphology and microbiota in juvenile paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) were studied. A total of 400 fish were reared in two cages and fed with a basal diet (control group, CG) or diet supplemented with commercial probiotics (treatment group, TG) for 80Â days. Enzymes activities analysis indicated that protease and Î±-amylase activities increased (PÂ <Â 0.01 or PÂ <Â 0.05) in TG. Light microscopy observation...
Authors: Ishimwe N1, Daliri EB, Lee BH, Fang F, Du G.
Abstract: The use of probiotics as food components combats not only cardiovascular diseases but also many gastrointestinal tract disorders. Their health benefits along with their increased global market have interested scientists for better formulation and appropriate administration to the consumers. However the lack of clear elucidation of their cholesterol lowering mechanisms, have complicated their proper dosage and administration to the beneficiaries. In this review, proposed mechanisms of cholesterol reduction such...
Authors: Galland L.
Abstract: The human gut microbiome impacts human brain health in numerous ways: (1) Structural bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides provide low-grade tonic stimulation of the innate immune system. Excessive stimulation due to bacterial dysbiosis, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, or increased intestinal permeability may produce systemic and/or central nervous system inflammation. (2) Bacterial proteins may cross-react with human antigens to stimulate dysfunctional responses of the adaptive immune system....
Authors: Kubiszewska I1, Januszewska M1, Rybka J2, Gackowska L1.
Abstract: The effect of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium on human health has been examined for many years. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have confirmed the beneficial activity of some exogenous lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of rotaviral infection, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and other gastrointestinal disorders. Probiotics support the action of the intestinal microflora and exhibit a favorable modulatory effect on the host's immune system. However, it should...
Authors: Ruggiero P.
Abstract: After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and the evidence of its relationship with gastric diseases, antibiotic-based therapies were developed, which efficacy was however limited by antibiotic resistance and lack of patient compliance. A vaccine would overcome these drawbacks, but currently there is not any H. pylori vaccine licensed. In the frame of the studies aimed at finding alternative therapies or at increasing the efficacy of the current ones and/or reducing their side effects, the investigation...
Authors: Papastergiou V, Georgopoulos SD, Karatapanis S.
Abstract: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major human pathogen associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, after decades of efforts, treatment of H. pylori remains a challenge for physicians, as there is no universally effective regimen. Due to the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, mainly to clarithromycin, efficacy of standard triple therapies has declined to unacceptably low levels in most parts of the world. Novel regimens, specifically experimented to improve the therapeutic outcome...
Authors: Bringiotti R, Ierardi E, Lovero R, Losurdo G, Leo AD, Principi M.
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), namely Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are lifelong chronic disorders arising from interactions among genetic, immunological and environmental factors. Although the origin of IBDs is closely linked to immune response alterations, which governs most medical decision-making, recent findings suggest that gut microbiota may be involved in IBD pathogenesis. Epidemiologic evidence and several studies have shown that a dysregulation of gut microbiota (i.e., dysbiosis) may...
Consecutive oral administration of Bifidobacterium longum MM-2 improves the defense system against influenza virus infection by enhancing natural killer cell activity in a murine model.
Authors: Kawahara T1, Takahashi T, Oishi K, Tanaka H, Masuda M, Takahashi S, Takano M, Kawakami T, Fukushima K, Kanazawa H, Suzuki T.
Abstract: Bifidobacterium, one of the major intestinal microflora components, shows anti-influenza virus (IFV) potential as a probiotic, partly through enhancement of innate immunity from modulation of the intestinal immune system. We isolated Bifidobacterium longum MM-2 (MM-2), a very safe bacterium in humans, from healthy humans. Here, we show the protective effect of MM-2 against IFV infection in a murine model. In mice that had been intranasally inoculated with IFV, consecutive oral administration of MM-2 improved...
Authors: Paolella G, Mandato C, Pierri L, Poeta M, Di Stasi M, Vajro P.
Abstract: The incidence of obesity and its related conditions, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has dramatically increased in all age groups worldwide. Given the health consequences of these conditions, and the subsequent economic burden on healthcare systems, their prevention and treatment have become major priorities. Because standard dietary and lifestyle changes and pathogenically-oriented therapies (e.g., antioxidants, oral hypoglycemic agents, and lipid-lowering agents) often fail due to poor...
Modulation of immunity and inflammatory gene expression in the gut, in inflammatory diseases of the gut and in the liver by probiotics.
Authors: Plaza-Diaz J, Gomez-Llorente C, Fontana L, Gil A.
Abstract: The potential for the positive manipulation of the gut microbiome through the introduction of beneficial microbes, as also known as probiotics, is currently an active area of investigation. The FAO/WHO define probiotics as live microorganisms that confer a health benefit to the host when administered in adequate amounts. However, dead bacteria and bacterial molecular components may also exhibit probiotic properties. The results of clinical studies have demonstrated the clinical potential of probiotics in many...
Authors: Chen WX, Ren LH, Shi RH.
Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a leading form of inflammatory bowel disease that involves chronic relapsing or progressive inflammation. As a significant proportion of UC patients treated with conventional therapies do not achieve remission, there is a pressing need for the development of more effective therapies. The human gut contains a large, diverse, and dynamic population of microorganisms, collectively referred to as the enteric microbiota. There is a symbiotic relationship between the human host and the enteric...
Commercially available probiotic drinks containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea.
Authors: Dietrich CG, Kottmann T, Alavi M.
Abstract: AIM: To investigate the effect of Lactobacillus-containing commercially available probiotic formulations in Germany during antibiotic treatment with an analysis of cost-efficiency.METHODS: In an observational study, we analyzed the frequency of bowel movements from 258 patients with infections in a primary care hospital in western Germany; 107 of the patients were offered a probiotic drink containing at least 10 billion cultures of Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 b.i.d. The economic analysis was based on the costs...
Authors: Gill EE1, Franco OL, Hancock RE.
Abstract: The growing number of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to numerous antibiotics is a cause for concern around the globe. There have been no new broad-spectrum antibiotics developed in the last 40 years, and the drugs we have currently are quickly becoming ineffective. In this article, we explore a range of therapeutic strategies that could be employed in conjunction with antibiotics, and may help to prolong the lifespan of these life-saving drugs. Discussed topics include anti-resistance drugs, which are...
Authors: Guandalini S, Cernat E, Moscoso D.
Abstract: Underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common disorder characterized by abdominal pain associated to a change in stool consistency or frequency, include low-grade inflammation and intestinal microbiota changes. Few and disappointing data are available for prebiotics. A few controlled trials (RCTs) of probiotics are instead available with favourable effects, although most are limited by suboptimal design and small sample size. A recent report from the Rome foundation group...
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis BB-02 attenuates acute murine experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease.
Authors: Elian SD1, Souza EL1, Vieira AT2, Teixeira MM3, Arantes RM4, Nicoli JR1, Martins FS1.
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory conditions, characterised by remissions and relapses episodes, whose main manifestations are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Ulcerative colitis (UC), one of the main forms of IBD, has as standard treatment the use of corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory drugs. The use of antibiotics has been also reported, but the possible adverse effects, such as disturbance of the indigenous microbiota or resistance induction, should be taken into consideration,...
Authors: Weizman Z.
Abstract: Infants and children attending day-care centres demonstrate a notably higher risk of gastrointestinal as well as of respiratory tract infections. The present short review evaluates various well-controlled clinical trials analysing the effect of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of such infections. In most of the 12 studies identified, probiotic supplementation was found to be a safe and effective therapeutic tool in preventing gastrointestinal and respiratory infection in this population....
Human intestinal mucosa-associated Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains with probiotic properties modulate IL-10, IL-6 and IL-12 gene expression in THP-1 cells.
Authors: Citar M1, Hacin B2, Tompa G3, Stempelj M4, Rogelj I3, DolinÅ¡ek J5, Narat M6, MatijaÅ¡iÄ‡ BB3.
Abstract: Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are considered one of the permanent genera of the physiological human intestinal microbiota and represent an enormous pool of potential probiotic candidates. Approximately 450 isolates of presumptive Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium strains were obtained from bioptic samples of colonic and ileal mucosa from 15 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. On the basis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis, 20 strains were selected for further taxonomic classification and...