Hrana in zdravje

Dobrodošli na spletnem mestu HRANA in ZDRAVJE.
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Authors: Warrack S1, Panjikar P1, Duster M1, Safdar N2.

Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen of major public health importance. Colonisation precedes infection; thus reducing MRSA carriage may be of benefit for reducing infection. Probiotics represent a novel approach to reducing MRSA carriage. We undertook a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial of the tolerability and acceptability of probiotics for reducing nasal and intestinal carriage of MRSA. In addition, subjects were screened for vancomycin-resistant enterocococci (VRE)....


Authors: Klu YA1, Phillips RD1, Chen J2.

Abstract: A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium,...


Authors: Nyanzi R1, Awouafack MD2, Steenkamp P3, Jooste PJ4, Eloff JN5.

Abstract: This study investigated the anti-Candida activity of methanol extracts from freeze-dried probiotic cells and the isolation of some constituents in the extracts. The MIC values of the probiotic methanol cell extracts against Candida albicans ranged between 1.25 and 5mg/ml after 48h of incubation. However, Lactococcus latics subsp. lactis strain X and Lactobacillus casei strain B extracts had an MIC of 10mg/ml after 48h of incubation. The extracts had fungistatic rather than fungicidal activity. These extracts...


Authors: Kaznessis YN.

Abstract: The discovery of antibiotics is one of the most important advances in the history of humankind. For eighty years human life expectancy and standards of living improved greatly thanks to antibiotics. But bacteria have been fighting back, developing resistance to our most potent molecules. New, alternative strategies must be explored as antibiotic therapies become obsolete because of bacterial resistance. Mathematical models and simulations guide the development of complex technologies, such as aircrafts, bridges,...


Authors: Inoue Y1, Shimojo N.

Abstract: Allergies are characterized by a hypersensitive immune reaction to originally harmless antigens. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic diseases has markedly increased, especially in developed countries. The increase in the frequency of allergic diseases is thought to be primarily due to environmental changes related to a westernized lifestyle, which affects the commensal microbes in the human body. The human gut is the largest organ colonized by bacteria and contains more than 1000 bacterial species,...


Authors: Ahire JJ1, Dicks LM.

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nisin, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and a combination of nisin and DHBA incorporated into nanofibers prepared from poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) on biofilm formation of a methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (strain Xen 31). Biofilm formation decreased by 88 % after 24 h of exposure to nanofibers containing nisin and DHBA (NDF), compared to a 63 % decrease when exposed to nanofibers containing...


Authors: London LE1, Kumar AH2, Wall R3, Casey PG4, O'Sullivan O5, Shanahan F3, Hill C4, Cotter PD1, Fitzgerald GF4, Ross RP4, Caplice NM2, Stanton C6.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Probiotic bacteria have been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk, a leading cause of death and disability.OBJECTIVES: The aim was to assess the impact of dietary administration of exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus cultures on lipid metabolism and gut microbiota in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice.METHODS: First, we examined lipid metabolism in response to dietary supplementation with recombinant β-glucan-producing Lactobacillus paracasei National Food...


Authors: Keunen K1, van Elburg RM2, van Bel F1, Benders MJ3.

Abstract: The impact of nutrition on brain development in preterm infants has been increasingly appreciated. Early postnatal growth and nutrient intake have been demonstrated to influence brain growth and maturation with subsequent effects on neurodevelopment that persist into childhood and adolescence. Nutrition could also potentially protect against injury. Inflammation and perinatal infection play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of white matter injury, the most common pattern of brain injury in preterm infants....


Authors: Romano-Keeler J, Weitkamp JH.

Abstract: While critical for normal development, the exact timing of establishment of the intestinal microbiome is unknown. For example, although preterm labor and birth have been associated with bacterial colonization of the amniotic cavity and fetal membranes for many years, the prevailing dogma of a sterile intra-uterine environment during normal term pregnancies has been challenged more recently. While found to be a key contributor of evolution in the animal kingdom, maternal transmission of commensal bacteria may...


Authors: Kamalian N1, Mirhosseini H2, Mustafa S3, Manap MY2.

Abstract: The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different coating materials (i.e. Na-alginate and chitosan) on the viability and release behavior of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 in the simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). This study reports the viability of encapsulated B. pseudocatenulatum G4 coated using different alginate (2-4g/100mL) and chitosan (0.2-0.8g/100mL) concentrations. The results indicated that the highest concentration of alginate (4.4142g/100mL)...


Authors: Soria MC1, Audisio MC.

Abstract: Bacillus cereus is an endospore-forming, Gram-positive bacterium able to cause foodborne diseases. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known for their ability to synthesize organic acids and bacteriocins, but the potential of these compounds against B. cereus has been scarcely documented in food models. The present study has examined the effect of the metabolites produced by Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1647 and Enterococcus faecium SM21 on the viability of select B. cereus strains. Furthermore, the effect of E. faecium...


Authors: Floch MH.

Abstract: Probiotics have gained worldwide use during the last two decades. However, which probiotic to use in which clinical condition has remained confusing in some clinical conditions. We convened a workshop at Yale in conjunction with Harvard in 2005, inviting a spectrum of probiotic authorities to discuss and reach conclusions on recommendations for use in common clinical conditions; the workshop was reconvened again in 2008 and in 2011. Each time the group of authorities was enlarged and varied depending on research...


Authors: Chen D, Yang Z, Chen X, Huang Y, Yin B, Guo F, Zhao H, Zhao T, Qu H, Huang J, Wu Y, Gu R.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates that intestinal microbiota regulate our metabolism. Probiotics confer health benefits that may depend on their ability to affect the gut microbiota. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of supplementation with the probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus hsryfm 1301, on the gut microbiota in a hyperlipidemic rat model, and to explore the associations between the gut microbiota and the serum lipids.METHODS: The hyperlipidemic rat model was established by...


Authors: Sadeghi AA.

Abstract: The present study was carried out to determine the effect of probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, on ash and calcium contents of tibia bone in unchallenged and challenged broiler chicks with Salmonella enteritidis. In a completely randomized design, 160 chicks were divided into four groups. Each group had four replicates with 10 birds each. Treatments were control group, probiotic-treated group, challenged group and challenged probiotic-treated group. Ash and calcium contents of tibia at 21 and 42 days of age were...


Authors: Underwood MA1, German JB2, Lebrilla CB3, Mills DA4.

Abstract: Oligosaccharides are abundant in human milk. Production of these highly diverse structures requires significant energy expenditure by the mother and yet these human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) offer no direct nutritive value to her infant. A primary function of HMOs is to shape the infant's intestinal microbiota with life-long consequences. Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis (B. infantis) is unique among gut bacteria in its prodigious capacity to digest and consume any HMO structure, the result of a...


Authors: Van den Nieuwboer M1, Brummer RJ2, Guarner F3, Morelli L4, Cabana M5, Claassen E6.

Abstract: This study aimed to systematically evaluate safety of probiotics and synbiotics in immune compromised adults (≥18 years). Safety was analysed using the Common Terminology Clinical Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.0) classification, thereby providing an update on previous reports using the most recent available clinical data (2008- 2013). Safety aspects are represented and related to number of participants per probiotic strain/culture, study duration, dosage, clinical condition and selected afflictions....


Authors: Magrone T1, Jirillo E.

Abstract: Immune decline with ageing accounts for the increased risk of infections, inflammatory chronic disease, autoimmunity and cancer in humans. Both innate and adaptive immune functions are compromised in aged people and, therefore, attempts to correct these dysfunctions represent a major goal of modern medicine. In this review, special emphasis will be placed on the aged innate immunity with special reference to polymorphonuclear cell, monocyte/macrophage, dendritic cell and natural killer cell functions. As potential...


Authors: Kannampalli P1, Pochiraju S, Chichlowski M, Berg BM, Rudolph C, Bruckert M, Miranda A, Sengupta JN.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates a positive effect of probiotics on the nervous system. The objective of this study was to determine if probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and/or prebiotics polydextrose/galactooligosaccharide (PDX/GOS) can alter the colonic sensitivity in a neonatal rat model of chronic visceral hyperalgesia and to determine whether altered sensitivity is associated with changes in neurotransmitter levels in the brain.METHODS: Chronic visceral hyperalgesia was induced in rats...


Authors: Novakova J1, Dzunková M2, Musilova S1, Vlkova E1, Kokoska L1, Moya A3, D'Auria G4.

Abstract: The major risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection is the use of antibiotics owing to the disruption of the equilibrium of the host gut microbiota. To preserve the beneficial resident probiotic bacteria during infection treatment, the use of molecules with selective antibacterial activity enhances the efficacy by selectively removing C. difficile. One of them is the plant alkaloid 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ), which has been shown to selectively inhibit clostridia without repressing bifidobacteria. Selective...


Authors: Waki N1, Matsumoto M, Fukui Y, Suganuma H.

Abstract: We investigated the efficacy of dietary consumption of Lactobacillus brevis KB290 (KB290) against influenza in humans by a preliminary intervention study on elementary school children, using a commercially available probiotic drink. Subjects were divided into Groups A and B and an open-label, parallel-group trial was conducted in two 8-week periods at a 1-month interval in winter 2013/2014. Group A was provided with a bottle of the test drink containing KB290 (about 6 billion colony-forming units) every school...


Authors: Russo F, Linsalata M, Orlando A.

Abstract: Gastric cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, accounting for about 10% of newly diagnosed neoplasms. In the last decades, an emerging role has been attributed to the relations between the intestinal microbiota and the onset of both gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal neoplasms. Thus, exogenous microbial administration of peculiar bacterial strains (probiotics) has been suggested as having a profound influence on multiple processes associated with a change in cancer risk. The...


Authors: Song JA1, Kim HJ2, Hong SK2, Lee DH2, Lee SW2, Song CS2, Kim KT3, Choi IS2, Lee JB2, Park SY4.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses cause acute respiratory disease. Because of the high genetic variability of viruses, effective vaccines and antiviral agents are limited. Considering the fact that the site of influenza virus entry is the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, probiotics that can enhance mucosal immunity as well as systemic immunity could be an important source of treatment against influenza infection.METHODS: Mice were fed with Lactobacillus rhamnosus M21 or skim milk and were challenged with influenza...


Authors: Newaj-Fyzul A1, Austin B.

Abstract: There is a rapidly increasing literature pointing to the success of probiotics, immunostimulants, plant products and oral vaccines in immunomodulation, namely stimulation of the innate, cellular and/or humoral immune response, and the control of bacterial fish diseases. Probiotics are regarded as live micro-organisms administered orally and leading to health benefits. However, in contrast with the use in terrestrial animals, a diverse range of micro-organisms have been evaluated in aquaculture with the mode...


Authors: Shivaji UN, Ford AC.

Abstract: Aim To examine beliefs about irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) management among primary care physicians.BACKGROUND: There have been considerable advances in evidence synthesis concerning management of IBS in the last five years, with guidelines for its management in primary care published by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE).METHODS: This was a cross-sectional web-based questionnaire survey of 275 primary care physicians. We emailed a link to a SurveyMonkey questionnaire, containing 18...


Authors: Bisanz JE, Enos MK, Mwanga JR1, Changalucha J1, Burton JP, Gloor GB2, Reid G3.

Abstract: Exposure to environmental toxins is a 21st century global health problem that is often the result of dietary intake. Although efforts are made to reduce dietary toxin levels, they are often unsuccessful, warranting research into novel methods to reduce host exposure. Food-grade microbes that can be delivered to the gastrointestinal tract and that are capable of sequestering toxins present a safe and cost-effective intervention. We sought to investigate the potential for probiotic-supplemented yogurt to lower...

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