Hrana in zdravje

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Authors: Klu YA1, Phillips RD1, Chen J2.

Abstract: A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium,...


Authors: Nyanzi R1, Awouafack MD2, Steenkamp P3, Jooste PJ4, Eloff JN5.

Abstract: This study investigated the anti-Candida activity of methanol extracts from freeze-dried probiotic cells and the isolation of some constituents in the extracts. The MIC values of the probiotic methanol cell extracts against Candida albicans ranged between 1.25 and 5mg/ml after 48h of incubation. However, Lactococcus latics subsp. lactis strain X and Lactobacillus casei strain B extracts had an MIC of 10mg/ml after 48h of incubation. The extracts had fungistatic rather than fungicidal activity. These extracts...


Authors: Kamalian N1, Mirhosseini H2, Mustafa S3, Manap MY2.

Abstract: The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different coating materials (i.e. Na-alginate and chitosan) on the viability and release behavior of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 in the simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). This study reports the viability of encapsulated B. pseudocatenulatum G4 coated using different alginate (2-4g/100mL) and chitosan (0.2-0.8g/100mL) concentrations. The results indicated that the highest concentration of alginate (4.4142g/100mL)...


Authors: Soukoulis C1, Behboudi-Jobbehdar S1, Yonekura L1, Parmenter C2, Fisk ID3.

Abstract: The concept of prebiotic edible films as effective vehicles for encapsulating probiotic living cells is presented. Four soluble fibres (inulin, polydextrose, glucose-oligosaccharides and wheat dextrin) were selected as prebiotic co-components of gelatine based matrices plasticised with glycerol and used for the immobilisation of Lactobacillusrhamnosus GG. The addition of prebiotics was associated with a more compact and uniform film structure, with no detectable interspaces or micropores; probiotic inclusion...


Authors: Barros Ade F1, de Pinho CR, Mafra D, Ferreira Dde C.

Abstract: ...


Authors: Vassallo A1, Tran MC, Goldstein EJ.

Abstract: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major public health problem worldwide with significant morbidity and mortality that is spread by spores and fecal oral transmission. A variety of risk factors have been identified. Some risk factors such as age, are not amenable to change, while others such as antimicrobial utilization have resulted in broadly implemented antimicrobial stewardship programs. New risk factors are emerging such as proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use, irritable bowel disease (IBD) and obesity,...


Authors: Feinle-Bisset C.

Abstract: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent research developments relating to the effects of, and interactions between, hormones and diet, as well as underlying mechanisms, on appetite, energy intake and body weight. For this purpose, clinically relevant English language articles were reviewed from October 2012 to April 2014.RECENT FINDINGS: The mechanisms underlying nutrient-induced energy intake suppression differ between dietary protein and lipid. High-fat, energy-dense diets compromise the satiating effects of...


Authors: Gholami Z, Khosravi-Darani K1.

Abstract: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has attracted considerable attention in health due to its important physiological properties proved in several in vivo experiments. Many bacteria, especially some probiotics, are able to produce CLA from the linoleic acid (LA) present in milk. In this review, CLA production by microorganisms is described. Then factors on the influencing the microbial production and the initial CLA content in milk fat are introduced. After a glimpse on the content of CLA in dairy products and human...


Authors: The PLOS ONE Staff.

Abstract: [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097458.]....


Authors: Aboubakr HA1, El-Banna AA, Youssef MM, Al-Sohaimy SA, Goyal SM.

Abstract: Foodborne viruses, particularly human norovirus (NV) and hepatitis virus type A, are a cause of concern for public health making it necessary to explore novel and effective techniques for prevention of foodborne viral contamination, especially in minimally processed and ready-to-eat foods. This study aimed to determine the antiviral activity of a probiotic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) against feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate of human NV. Bacterial growth medium filtrate (BGMF) of Lactococcus lactis subsp....


Authors: Bisanz JE1, Seney S2, McMillan A1, Vongsa R3, Koenig D3, Wong L3, Dvoracek B3, Gloor GB4, Sumarah M5, Ford B6, Herman D6, Burton JP7, Reid G8.

Abstract: A lactobacilli dominated microbiota in most pre and post-menopausal women is an indicator of vaginal health. The objective of this double blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study was to evaluate in 14 post-menopausal women with an intermediate Nugent score, the effect of 3 days of vaginal administration of probiotic L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 (2.5×109 CFU each) on the microbiota and host response. The probiotic treatment did not result in an improved Nugent score when compared to when placebo....


Authors: Sams ER1, Whiteley M2, Turner KH3.

Abstract: The field of medical microbiology was born in the late 19th century. Robert Koch, Joseph Lister, Louis Pasteur, and others were responsible for the classic work that forms the foundation of much of today's science. This work is often taught to students today as perfectly formed ideas and experiments, without the relevant historical context. Yet science was as much a competitive and collaborative enterprise during the time of Pasteur as it is today. Therefore, to fully appreciate the contributions made by the...


Authors: Molina-Infante J, Gisbert JP.

Abstract: The efficacy of triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection has dramatically declined over the last decade, largely related to increasing clarithromycin resistance rates. From a microbiological standpoint, bismuth quadruple therapy is the ideal replacement since it combines drugs for which resistance does not impair its efficacy. Nonetheless, several obstacles such as availability, complexity or tolerance prevent a general implementation of bismuth quadruple therapy, so non-bismuth quadruple regimens remain...


Authors: Linsalata M, Orlando A, Russo F.

Abstract: Chemoprevention is the long-term use of different chemical agents, both synthetic and natural, to prevent or delay the onset of disease. Since colorectal cancer has a significant environmental component, it is an ideal disease in which to evaluate the potential benefits of chemopreventive agents. The polyamines, spermine, spermidine and putrescine have been involved in almost all the steps of colorectal tumorigenesis. Consequently, polyamine biosynthesis and catabolism can be considered as promising targets...


Authors: Ruiz L1, Hevia A, Bernardo D, Margolles A, Sánchez B.

Abstract: Interest in probiotic bacteria, in the context of health and disease, is increasing and gathering scientific evidence, as is reflected by their growing utilization in food and pharma industry. As a consequence, a lot of research effort over the past few years has been dedicated to discern the molecular mechanisms responsible for their purported attributes. Remarkably, whereas the traditional probiotic concept assumes that bacteria must be alive during their administration in order to exert health promoting effects,...


Authors: Jeronymo-Ceneviva AB1, de Paula AT, Silva LF, Todorov SD, Franco BD, Penna AL.

Abstract: This study evaluated the probiotic properties (stability at different pH values and bile salt concentration, auto-aggregation and co-aggregation, survival in the presence of antibiotics and commercial drugs, study of β-galactosidase production, evaluation of the presence of genes encoding MapA and Mub adhesion proteins and EF-Tu elongation factor, and the presence of genes encoding virulence factor) of four LAB strains (Lactobacillus casei SJRP35, Leuconostoc citreum SJRP44, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp....


Authors: Rad AH1, Mehrabany EV, Alipoor B, Mehrabany LV.

Abstract: Probiotics are live bacteria which have frequently been reported to be beneficial in preventing a wide range of diseases as well as playing a major role in treating the existing ailments. Thus far, a variety of probiotic products have been developed which can be categorized into two groups: probiotic foods and supplements. Both foods and supplements have been able to confer the health benefits claimed for them. However, it is not known which one can be clinically more efficient, and to the best of our knowledge,...


Authors: Lin R1, Jiang Y, Zhao X, Guan Y, Qian W, Fu XC, Ren HY, Hou XH.

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gut microbiota on autophagy activation in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). In addition, the IEC autophagy response to different types of bacteria was also evaluated.METHODS: IEC-18 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) O127:B8 and culture medium supernatants of four types of Bifidobacteria. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) examination were recorded using EVOM chopstick...


Authors: Azevedo JF1, Hermes-Uliana C2, Lima DP3, Sant'ana DM4, Alves G5, Araújo EJ6.

Abstract: This study sought to morphometrically analyze the jejunal wall of protein-malnourished rats administered a probiotic supplement. The sample consisted of recently weaned Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) distributed among four groups: animals given a commercial diet (G1, n = 4); animals given the same ration as G1 plus a probiotic supplement (G2, n = 4); animals given a 4% protein diet (G3, n = 4); and animals given the same ration as G3 plus a probiotic supplement (G4, n = 4). After 12 weeks, part of the jejunum...


Authors: Habil N1, Abate W2, Beal J2, Foey AD2.

Abstract: The inducible antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and bacterial products is essential to antipathogen responses of gut epithelial cells. Commensal and probiotic bacteria can augment such mucosal defences. Probiotic use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, however, may have adverse effects, boosting inflammatory responses. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of selected probiotic strains on hBD-2 production by epithelial cells...


Authors: Said MB1, Hays S2, Maucort-Boulch D3, Oulmaati A4, Hantova S5, Loys CM4, Jumas-Bilak E6, Picaud JC7.

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Gross blood in stools is a peculiar entity in preterm infants, but little is known about its etiology. As gut microbiota can be distorted in preterm infants, we aimed to evaluate the gut microbiota in infants with gross blood in stools.STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective, controlled, single-center study, we enrolled all infants born before 34weeks of gestational age presenting gross blood in stools that was either completely isolated or associated with mild clinical symptoms or radiological signs. Each...


Authors: Pang XY, Cui WM, Liu L, Zhang SW, Lv JP.

Abstract: Autolysis of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) plays a vital role in dairy processing. During cheese making, autolysis of LAB affects cheese flavor development through release of intracellular enzymes and restricts the proliferation of cells in yogurt fermentation and probiotics production. In order to explore the mechanism of autolysis, the gene for the autolytic enzymes of L. bulgaricus, N-acetylmuramidase (mur), was cloned and sequenced (GenBank accession number: KF157911). Mur gene overexpression and gene knockout...


Authors: Sun Z1, Westermann C1, Yuan J2, Riedel CU1.

Abstract: The DNA sequence upstream of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gap) of various strains of bifidobacteria is used in a number of vector systems for homologous and heterologous expression in this group of bacteria. To date none of the bifidobacterial gap promoters (Pgap) have been verified experimentally. Here, we probe a range of putative bifidobacterial promoters hypothesized to show high constitutive transcriptional activity using a β-glucuronidase reporter system. In silico analysis revealed...


Authors: Kim HM1, Lee DE, Park SD, Kim YT, Kim YJ, Jeong JW, Jang SS, Ahn YT, Sim JH, Huh CS, Chung DK, Lee JH.

Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation alters multiple molecular pathways in the skin, thereby inducing skin damage, including photoaging. In recent years, probiotics have gained interest due to their beneficial effects on skin health, such as inhibiting atopic dermatitis and improving skin immunity or inflammation. However, little is known about the effects of probiotics on UVB-induced photoaging. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 against UVB-induced photoaging in human dermal fibroblasts...


Authors: Aragón F, Perdigón G, de Moreno de LeBlanc A.

Abstract: The population tends to consume foods that in addition to their nutritional values can offer some benefits to their health. There are many epidemiological evidences and research studies in animal models suggesting that diet plays an important role in breast cancer prevention or progression. This review summarized some of the relevant researches about nutrition and cancer during the last years, especially in breast cancer. The analysis of probiotics and fermented products containing lactic acid bacteria in cancer...

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