Authors: Gomez Arango LF1, Barrett HL, Callaway LK, Nitert MD.
Abstract: Complications of pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes for mother and baby in the short and long term. The gut microbiome has been identified as a key factor for maintaining health outside of pregnancy and could contribute to pregnancy complications. In addition, the vaginal and the recently revealed placental microbiome are altered in pregnancy and may play a role in pregnancy complications. Probiotic supplementation could help to regulate the unbalanced microflora composition observed in obesity and...
Authors: Szajewska H1, van Goudoever JB2.
Authors: Athalye-Jape G, Deshpande G, Rao S, Patole S.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The optimization of enteral nutrition is a priority in preterm neonates worldwide. Probiotics are known to improve gut maturity and function in preterm neonates. To our knowledge, previous systematic reviews have not adequately assessed the effects of probiotic supplementation on enteral nutrition in preterm neonates.OBJECTIVE: We assessed the evidence on effects of probiotics on enteral nutrition in preterm neonates.DESIGN: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of probiotic...
A review of the literature regarding nutritional supplements and their effect on vaginal flora and preterm birth.
Authors: Cooper NA1, Moores R; and the East London Preterm Prevention Collaboration.
Abstract: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review was to evaluate recently published review articles which examine the use of nutritional supplements to prevent preterm birth (PTB) by modifying vaginal bacteria.RECENT FINDINGS: Probiotics, vitamin D and vitamin C were all identified as nutritional supplements that have the potential to alter bacterial flora and consequently reduce PTB and treat or prevent genital infections. Evidence shows that probiotics may reduce the incidence of PTB as well as being effective at...
Increased Survival of Juvenile Turbot Scophthalmus maximus by Using Bacteria Associated with CulturedÂ Oysters.
Authors: Farto Seguín RM1, BermÃºdez MB, Rivera L, Nieto TP.
Abstract: Preventing vibriosis in juvenile cultured Turbot Scophthalmus maximus caused by Vibrio anguillarum frequently requires the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics in addition to vaccines. Whether the use of probiotics instead of antibiotics in juvenile Turbot is a safer strategy requires more study. The antibacterial potential of 148 Vibrio spp. strains (mostly isolated from cultures of healthy oysters, clams, and Turbot) was analyzed in vitro against V. anguillarum and other pathogens by means of an agar...
Tolerability of a probiotic in subjects with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation.
Authors: Warrack S1, Panjikar P1, Duster M1, Safdar N2.
Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen of major public health importance. Colonisation precedes infection; thus reducing MRSA carriage may be of benefit for reducing infection. Probiotics represent a novel approach to reducing MRSA carriage. We undertook a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial of the tolerability and acceptability of probiotics for reducing nasal and intestinal carriage of MRSA. In addition, subjects were screened for vancomycin-resistant enterocococci (VRE)....
Authors: Klu YA1, Phillips RD1, Chen J2.
Abstract: A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium,...
Anticandidal activity of cell extracts from 13 probiotic Lactobacillus strains and characterisation of lactic acid and a novel fatty acid derivative from one strain.
Authors: Nyanzi R1, Awouafack MD2, Steenkamp P3, Jooste PJ4, Eloff JN5.
Abstract: This study investigated the anti-Candida activity of methanol extracts from freeze-dried probiotic cells and the isolation of some constituents in the extracts. The MIC values of the probiotic methanol cell extracts against Candida albicans ranged between 1.25 and 5mg/ml after 48h of incubation. However, Lactococcus latics subsp. lactis strain X and Lactobacillus casei strain B extracts had an MIC of 10mg/ml after 48h of incubation. The extracts had fungistatic rather than fungicidal activity. These extracts...
Authors: Zhang Y1, Tan H, Deng Q, Cao L.
Abstract: Most known antibiotics from bacteria are produced by Actinobacteria. However, little is known about the community structure and diversity of fecal actinobacteria from rabbit feces. To investigate the actinobacterial community structure in rabbit feces, different actinobacterial-specific primer sets were used to amplify the overlap regions of 16S rRNA genes from the same DNA. At the genus level, 12 actinobacterial genera were detected by the L and S libraries. Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Dietzia, Leucobacter,...
Authors: Matsuoka K1, Kanai T.
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gut. Although the precise cause of IBD remains unknown, the most accepted hypothesis of IBD pathogenesis to date is that an aberrant immune response against the gut microbiota is triggered by environmental factors in a genetically susceptible host. The advancement of next-generation sequencing technology has enabled identification of various alterations of the gut microbiota composition in IBD. While some results related...
Membrane Interactions of Synthetic Peptides with Antimicrobial Potential: Effect of Electrostatic Interactions and Amphiphilicity.
Authors: Fillion M1, Valois-Paillard G, Lorin A, NoÃ«l M, Voyer N, Auger M.
Abstract: Cationic antimicrobial peptides are considered promising candidates to complement currently used antibiotics, which are less effective against increasingly resistant pathogens. To determine the mechanism of action of these peptides, a better understanding of each molecular determinant involved in their membrane interactions is of great importance. In this study, we have focused on the role of electrostatic interactions and amphiphilicity on the membrane interactions since the large majority of natural antimicrobial...
Antimicrobial Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on Cariogenic Bacteria Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mutans, and Periodontal Diseases Actinomyces naeslundii and Tannerella forsythia.
Authors: Baca-CastaÃ±ón ML1, De la Garza-Ramos MA, Alcázar-PizaÃ±a AG, Grondin Y, Coronado-Mendoza A, Sánchez-Najera RI, Cárdenas-Estrada E, Medina-De la Garza CE, Escamilla-García E.
Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well known for their beneficial effects on human health in the intestine and immune system; however, there are few studies on the impact they can generate in oral health. The aim of this study was to test and compare in vitro antimicrobial activity of L. reuteri on pathogenic bacteria involved in the formation of dental caries: S. mutans, S. gordonii, and periodontal disease: A. naeslundii and T. forsythia. Also, we determined the growth kinetics of each bacterium involved in this...
Probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum) prevent NEC in VLBW infants fed breast milk but not formula.
Authors: Repa A1, Thanhaeuser M1, Endress D2, Weber M3, Kreissl A1, Binder C1, Berger A1, Haiden N1.
Abstract: BackgroundSpecific probiotics prevent NEC. A mixture of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (Infloran) was highly effective in Asian very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. We analyzed the effect of Infloran on NEC, NEC severity and the influence of enteral feedings (breast milk vs. formula) on NEC prevention in a cohort of European VLBW infants.MethodsInfloran was implemented for routine use at our department. VLBW infants receiving probiotics were prospectively followed (2010-12) and compared to historic controls...
Authors: Larraufie P1, de Wouters T1, Potocki-Veronese G2, BlottiÃ¨re HM1, Doré J1.
Abstract: The recent developments of metagenomics permit an extremely high-resolution molecular scan of the intestinal microbiota giving new insights and opening perspectives for clinical applications. Beyond the unprecedented vision of the intestinal microbiota given by large-scale quantitative metagenomics studies, such as the EU MetaHIT project, functional metagenomics tools allow the exploration of fine interactions between food constituents, microbiota and host, leading to the identification of signals and intimate...
Authors: Aydin A1, Ahmed K, Zaman I, Khan MS, Dasgupta P.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are more common in women and are frequently defined as â‰¥2 episodes in the last 6Â months or â‰¥3 episodes in the last 12Â months. In a primary care setting, 53Â % of women above the age of 55Â years and 36Â % of younger women report a recurrence within 1Â year. Thus, management and prevention of recurrent UTI is of utmost significance. This review aims to highlight the latest research in prevention strategies and suggest...
Effect of dietary incorporation of a multi-strain probiotic on growth performance and health status in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
Authors: Giannenas I1, Karamaligas I, Margaroni M, Pappas I, Mayer E, EncarnaÃ§Ã£o P, Karagouni E.
Abstract: Dietary supplementation with a multi-strain probiotic containing Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus reuteri has been examined for its effects on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, non-specific immune response and antioxidant status of rainbow trout. Three groups of sub-adult trout were stocked into experimental tanks. A commercial diet was used as control, while the other two groups received diets supplemented with the multi-strain probiotic at levels...
Authors: Cipriani F1, Dondi A, Ricci G.
Abstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD), named also atopic eczema, is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease with a considerable social and economic burden. The primum movens of AD is in most cases a genetic and/or immune-supported defect of the skin barrier, facilitating penetration and sensitization to food or airborne allergens, as well as infections by S. aureus, herpes simplex virus or other microbes. New pathogenetic concepts have generated new approaches to prevention and therapy of AD. In particular, the daily...
Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7315/7316 intake modulates the acute and chronic innate inflammatory response.
Authors: Vilahur G1, López-Bernal S, Camino S, Mendieta G, Padró T, Badimon L.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Probiotics may confer health benefits for the host. Although Lactobacillus has demonstrated to stimulate the immune response, only a few strains have demonstrated immunomodulatory properties. The newly identified Lactobacillus plantarum strains CECT7315 and CECT7316 (LP3457) seem to boost the immune system in individuals that immune decline. We aimed to investigate whether LP3457 protects against inflammation and the mechanism behind.METHODS: LP3457 potential anti-inflammatory effects were assessed...
Alterations of digestive enzyme activities, intestinal morphology and microbiota in juvenile paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, fed dietary probiotics.
Authors: Fang C1, Ma M, Ji H, Ren T, Mims SD.
Abstract: The effects of dietary supplementation of probiotics on digestive enzymes activities, intestinal morphology and microbiota in juvenile paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) were studied. A total of 400 fish were reared in two cages and fed with a basal diet (control group, CG) or diet supplemented with commercial probiotics (treatment group, TG) for 80Â days. Enzymes activities analysis indicated that protease and Î±-amylase activities increased (PÂ <Â 0.01 or PÂ <Â 0.05) in TG. Light microscopy observation...
Authors: Ishimwe N1, Daliri EB, Lee BH, Fang F, Du G.
Abstract: The use of probiotics as food components combats not only cardiovascular diseases but also many gastrointestinal tract disorders. Their health benefits along with their increased global market have interested scientists for better formulation and appropriate administration to the consumers. However the lack of clear elucidation of their cholesterol lowering mechanisms, have complicated their proper dosage and administration to the beneficiaries. In this review, proposed mechanisms of cholesterol reduction such...
Authors: Galland L.
Abstract: The human gut microbiome impacts human brain health in numerous ways: (1) Structural bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides provide low-grade tonic stimulation of the innate immune system. Excessive stimulation due to bacterial dysbiosis, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, or increased intestinal permeability may produce systemic and/or central nervous system inflammation. (2) Bacterial proteins may cross-react with human antigens to stimulate dysfunctional responses of the adaptive immune system....
Authors: Kubiszewska I1, Januszewska M1, Rybka J2, Gackowska L1.
Abstract: The effect of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium on human health has been examined for many years. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have confirmed the beneficial activity of some exogenous lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of rotaviral infection, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and other gastrointestinal disorders. Probiotics support the action of the intestinal microflora and exhibit a favorable modulatory effect on the host's immune system. However, it should...
Authors: Ruggiero P.
Abstract: After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and the evidence of its relationship with gastric diseases, antibiotic-based therapies were developed, which efficacy was however limited by antibiotic resistance and lack of patient compliance. A vaccine would overcome these drawbacks, but currently there is not any H. pylori vaccine licensed. In the frame of the studies aimed at finding alternative therapies or at increasing the efficacy of the current ones and/or reducing their side effects, the investigation...
Authors: Papastergiou V, Georgopoulos SD, Karatapanis S.
Abstract: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major human pathogen associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, after decades of efforts, treatment of H. pylori remains a challenge for physicians, as there is no universally effective regimen. Due to the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, mainly to clarithromycin, efficacy of standard triple therapies has declined to unacceptably low levels in most parts of the world. Novel regimens, specifically experimented to improve the therapeutic outcome...
Authors: Bringiotti R, Ierardi E, Lovero R, Losurdo G, Leo AD, Principi M.
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), namely Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are lifelong chronic disorders arising from interactions among genetic, immunological and environmental factors. Although the origin of IBDs is closely linked to immune response alterations, which governs most medical decision-making, recent findings suggest that gut microbiota may be involved in IBD pathogenesis. Epidemiologic evidence and several studies have shown that a dysregulation of gut microbiota (i.e., dysbiosis) may...