Tolerability of a probiotic in subjects with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation.
Authors: Warrack S1, Panjikar P1, Duster M1, Safdar N2.
Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen of major public health importance. Colonisation precedes infection; thus reducing MRSA carriage may be of benefit for reducing infection. Probiotics represent a novel approach to reducing MRSA carriage. We undertook a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial of the tolerability and acceptability of probiotics for reducing nasal and intestinal carriage of MRSA. In addition, subjects were screened for vancomycin-resistant enterocococci (VRE)....
Authors: Klu YA1, Phillips RD1, Chen J2.
Abstract: A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium,...
Anticandidal activity of cell extracts from 13 probiotic Lactobacillus strains and characterisation of lactic acid and a novel fatty acid derivative from one strain.
Authors: Nyanzi R1, Awouafack MD2, Steenkamp P3, Jooste PJ4, Eloff JN5.
Abstract: This study investigated the anti-Candida activity of methanol extracts from freeze-dried probiotic cells and the isolation of some constituents in the extracts. The MIC values of the probiotic methanol cell extracts against Candida albicans ranged between 1.25 and 5mg/ml after 48h of incubation. However, Lactococcus latics subsp. lactis strain X and Lactobacillus casei strain B extracts had an MIC of 10mg/ml after 48h of incubation. The extracts had fungistatic rather than fungicidal activity. These extracts...
Folate is absorbed across the human colon: evidence by using enteric-coated caplets containing 13C-labeled [6S]-5-formyltetrahydrofolate.
Authors: Lakoff A, Fazili Z, Aufreiter S, Pfeiffer CM, Connolly B, Gregory JF 3rd, Pencharz PB, O'Connor DL.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Folate intakes that do not meet or greatly exceed requirements may be associated with negative health outcomes. A better understanding of contributors that influence the input side will help establish dietary guidance that ensures health benefits without associated risks. Colonic microbiota produce large quantities of folate, and [(13)C5]5-formyltetrahydrofolate infused during colonoscopy is absorbed. However, it is unclear if significant quantities of folate are absorbed in an intact microbiome.OBJECTIVE:...
Authors: Kaznessis YN.
Abstract: The discovery of antibiotics is one of the most important advances in the history of humankind. For eighty years human life expectancy and standards of living improved greatly thanks to antibiotics. But bacteria have been fighting back, developing resistance to our most potent molecules. New, alternative strategies must be explored as antibiotic therapies become obsolete because of bacterial resistance. Mathematical models and simulations guide the development of complex technologies, such as aircrafts, bridges,...
Authors: Jensen H1, DrÃ¸mtorp SM, Axelsson L, Grimmer S.
Abstract: Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus, are recognized as common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract and have received considerable attention in the last decades due to their postulated health-promoting effects. LAB and probiotic bacteria can modulate the host immune response. However, much is unknown about the mediators and mechanisms responsible for their immunological effect. Here, we present a study using cytokine secretion from the monocytic...
A review on prebiotics and probiotics for the control of dysbiosis: present status and future perspectives.
Authors: Ducatelle R, Eeckhaut V, Haesebrouck F, Van Immerseel F.
Abstract: Dysbiosis or dysbacteriosis is defined as a shift in the intestinal microbiota composition resulting in an imbalance between beneficial and harmful bacteria. Since the ban on the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in animal feed in the EU, dysbiosis has emerged as a major problem in intensive animal production. Prebiotics and probiotics are currently under investigation as possible alternatives to growth-promoting antibiotics, as their mode of action is thought to be based largely on a modulation of the composition...
Antibiofilm Activity of the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 Against Vibrio tapetis, the Causative Agent of Brown Ring Disease.
Authors: Rodrigues S1, Paillard C, Dufour A, Bazire A.
Abstract: Vibrio tapetis CECT4600 is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium causing the brown ring disease in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. This vibriosis is induced by bacterial attachment on the periostracal lamina, yielding a decalcification of the bivalve shell. As in many bacterial species, pathogenesis is likely related to biofilm formation. The proteinaceous exoproducts of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 inhibit the formation of biofilm by most of the tested marine bacteria without affecting...
Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius UBL S22 and Prebiotic Fructo-oligosaccharide on Serum Lipids, Inflammatory Markers, Insulin Sensitivity, and Gut Bacteria in Healthy Young Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Single-Blind Pilot Study.
Authors: Rajkumar H1, Kumar M2, Das N1, Kumar SN1, Challa HR1, Nagpal R3.
Abstract: This study investigated the effect of 6-week supplementation of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius UBL S22 with or without prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on serum lipid profiles, immune responses, insulin sensitivity, and gut lactobacilli in 45 healthy young individuals. The patients were divided into 3 groups (15/group), that is, placebo, probiotic, and synbiotic. After 6 weeks, a significant reduction (P < .05) in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides...
Comparative evaluation of probiotic and salinomycin effects on performance and coccidiosis control in broiler chickens.
Authors: Abdelrahman W1, Mohnl M2, Teichmann K3, Doupovec B2, Schatzmayr G3, Lumpkins B4, Mathis G4.
Abstract: The annual financial loss to the poultry industry as a result of coccidiosis has been estimated at about US $3 billion. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of probiotics and salinomycin as feed additives on performance and coccidiosis control in male broilers raised to 42 d of age. The study consisted of 360 Cobb male broiler chickens randomly allocated to 4 groups each with 3 replicates. Group 1: untreated, unchallenged negative control group (NC); group 2: untreated, challenged...
Ondansetron and probiotics in the management of pediatric acute gastroenteritis in developed countries.
Authors: Schnadower D1, Finkelstein Y, Freedman SB.
Abstract: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common and impactful disease, typically managed with supportive care. There is considerable interest in the role of adjunctive therapies, particularly ondansetron and probiotics in improving AGE outcomes. The purpose of this review is to present the latest evidence regarding the use of these agents in children with AGE in developed countries.RECENT FINDINGS: Single-dose oral ondansetron is effective and safe in reducing hospital admissions and the use of intravenous...
Authors: Inoue Y1, Shimojo N.
Abstract: Allergies are characterized by a hypersensitive immune reaction to originally harmless antigens. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic diseases has markedly increased, especially in developed countries. The increase in the frequency of allergic diseases is thought to be primarily due to environmental changes related to a westernized lifestyle, which affects the commensal microbes in the human body. The human gut is the largest organ colonized by bacteria and contains more than 1000 bacterial species,...
Nisin Incorporated With 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid in Nanofibers Inhibits Biofilm Formation by a Methicillin-Resistant Strain of Staphylococcus aureus.
Authors: Ahire JJ1, Dicks LM.
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nisin, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and a combination of nisin and DHBA incorporated into nanofibers prepared from poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) on biofilm formation of a methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (strain Xen 31). Biofilm formation decreased by 88Â % after 24Â h of exposure to nanofibers containing nisin and DHBA (NDF), compared to a 63Â % decrease when exposed to nanofibers containing...
Exopolysaccharide-Producing Probiotic Lactobacilli Reduced Serum Cholesterol and Modified Enteric Microbiota in ApoE-Deficient Mice.
Authors: London LE1, Kumar AH2, Wall R3, Casey PG4, O'Sullivan O5, Shanahan F3, Hill C4, Cotter PD1, Fitzgerald GF4, Ross RP4, Caplice NM2, Stanton C6.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Probiotic bacteria have been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk, a leading cause of death and disability.OBJECTIVES: The aim was to assess the impact of dietary administration of exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus cultures on lipid metabolism and gut microbiota in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice.METHODS: First, we examined lipid metabolism in response to dietary supplementation with recombinant β-glucan-producing Lactobacillus paracasei National Food...
Impact of nutrition on brain development and its neuroprotective implications following preterm birth.
Authors: Keunen K1, van Elburg RM2, van Bel F1, Benders MJ3.
Abstract: The impact of nutrition on brain development in preterm infants has been increasingly appreciated. Early postnatal growth and nutrient intake have been demonstrated to influence brain growth and maturation with subsequent effects on neurodevelopment that persist into childhood and adolescence. Nutrition could also potentially protect against injury. Inflammation and perinatal infection play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of white matter injury, the most common pattern of brain injury in preterm infants....
Authors: Romano-Keeler J, Weitkamp JH.
Abstract: While critical for normal development, the exact timing of establishment of the intestinal microbiome is unknown. For example, although preterm labor and birth have been associated with bacterial colonization of the amniotic cavity and fetal membranes for many years, the prevailing dogma of a sterile intra-uterine environment during normal term pregnancies has been challenged more recently. While found to be a key contributor of evolution in the animal kingdom, maternal transmission of commensal bacteria may...
Effect of alginate and chitosan on viability and release behavior of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 in simulated gastrointestinal fluid.
Authors: Kamalian N1, Mirhosseini H2, Mustafa S3, Manap MY2.
Abstract: The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different coating materials (i.e. Na-alginate and chitosan) on the viability and release behavior of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 in the simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). This study reports the viability of encapsulated B. pseudocatenulatum G4 coated using different alginate (2-4g/100mL) and chitosan (0.2-0.8g/100mL) concentrations. The results indicated that the highest concentration of alginate (4.4142g/100mL)...
Inhibition of Bacillus cereus Strains by Antimicrobial Metabolites from Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1647 and Enterococcus faecium SM21.
Authors: Soria MC1, Audisio MC.
Abstract: Bacillus cereus is an endospore-forming, Gram-positive bacterium able to cause foodborne diseases. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known for their ability to synthesize organic acids and bacteriocins, but the potential of these compounds against B. cereus has been scarcely documented in food models. The present study has examined the effect of the metabolites produced by Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1647 and Enterococcus faecium SM21 on the viability of select B. cereus strains. Furthermore, the effect of E. faecium...
Authors: Floch MH.
Abstract: Probiotics have gained worldwide use during the last two decades. However, which probiotic to use in which clinical condition has remained confusing in some clinical conditions. We convened a workshop at Yale in conjunction with Harvard in 2005, inviting a spectrum of probiotic authorities to discuss and reach conclusions on recommendations for use in common clinical conditions; the workshop was reconvened again in 2008 and in 2011. Each time the group of authorities was enlarged and varied depending on research...
The effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus hsryfm 1301 on the intestinal microbiota of a hyperlipidemic rat model.
Authors: Chen D, Yang Z, Chen X, Huang Y, Yin B, Guo F, Zhao H, Zhao T, Qu H, Huang J, Wu Y, Gu R.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates that intestinal microbiota regulate our metabolism. Probiotics confer health benefits that may depend on their ability to affect the gut microbiota. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of supplementation with the probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus hsryfm 1301, on the gut microbiota in a hyperlipidemic rat model, and to explore the associations between the gut microbiota and the serum lipids.METHODS: The hyperlipidemic rat model was established by...
Bone Mineralization of Broiler Chicks Challenged with Salmonella enteritidis Fed Diet Containing Probiotic (Bacillus subtilis).
Authors: Sadeghi AA.
Abstract: The present study was carried out to determine the effect of probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, on ash and calcium contents of tibia bone in unchallenged and challenged broiler chicks with Salmonella enteritidis. In a completely randomized design, 160 chicks were divided into four groups. Each group had four replicates with 10 birds each. Treatments were control group, probiotic-treated group, challenged group and challenged probiotic-treated group. Ash and calcium contents of tibia at 21 and 42 days of age were...
Authors: Underwood MA1, German JB2, Lebrilla CB3, Mills DA4.
Abstract: Oligosaccharides are abundant in human milk. Production of these highly diverse structures requires significant energy expenditure by the mother and yet these human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) offer no direct nutritive value to her infant. A primary function of HMOs is to shape the infant's intestinal microbiota with life-long consequences. Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis (B. infantis) is unique among gut bacteria in its prodigious capacity to digest and consume any HMO structure, the result of a...
Authors: Van den Nieuwboer M1, Brummer RJ2, Guarner F3, Morelli L4, Cabana M5, Claassen E6.
Abstract: This study aimed to systematically evaluate safety of probiotics and synbiotics in immune compromised adults (â‰¥18 years). Safety was analysed using the Common Terminology Clinical Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.0) classification, thereby providing an update on previous reports using the most recent available clinical data (2008- 2013). Safety aspects are represented and related to number of participants per probiotic strain/culture, study duration, dosage, clinical condition and selected afflictions....
Authors: Magrone T1, Jirillo E.
Abstract: Immune decline with ageing accounts for the increased risk of infections, inflammatory chronic disease, autoimmunity and cancer in humans. Both innate and adaptive immune functions are compromised in aged people and, therefore, attempts to correct these dysfunctions represent a major goal of modern medicine. In this review, special emphasis will be placed on the aged innate immunity with special reference to polymorphonuclear cell, monocyte/macrophage, dendritic cell and natural killer cell functions. As potential...
Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and prebiotic prevent neonatal inflammation-induced visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats.
Authors: Kannampalli P1, Pochiraju S, Chichlowski M, Berg BM, Rudolph C, Bruckert M, Miranda A, Sengupta JN.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates a positive effect of probiotics on the nervous system. The objective of this study was to determine if probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and/or prebiotics polydextrose/galactooligosaccharide (PDX/GOS) can alter the colonic sensitivity in a neonatal rat model of chronic visceral hyperalgesia and to determine whether altered sensitivity is associated with changes in neurotransmitter levels in the brain.METHODS: Chronic visceral hyperalgesia was induced in rats...